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Ten Instruction for Good Safety Habits I n most everything we do, we find a “trick” to make the process easier and faster. After we develo...

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Showing posts with label Electrical Safety / LOTO. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Electrical Safety / LOTO. Show all posts

Thursday, 2 July 2020

Wires can mean Death

Wires can mean Death

In contemporary wiring, individual wires are run in a sheathed cable or conduit. The white wire is neutral and the green wire is ground wire. The "hot wire/' is usually black or red, and they are dangerous to touch. To protect from electrical shock, learn hazards associated with basic wiring, and take steps to avoid these hazards.

  • Never attempt to handle any wires or conductors until you are absolutely positive that their electrical supply has been shut off. Properly lock out and tag all machines/equipment/circuits to prevent accidental startup.
  • You will receive an electrical shock if a part of your body completes an electrical circuit by touching a live wire and ground, or touching a live wire and another wire at a different voltage.
  • Consider all electrical wires as "hot" or "live" until verified as safe by a qualified person.
  • If you come in contact with an energized wire—and you are also in contact with a grounded path-current will pass through your body. You will receive an electrical shock.

Wednesday, 14 August 2019

Electrical Safety - Office



Electrical Safety - Office
 

Electrical Safety
What Are The  office Hazards?


Fire and Electrocution are the two main hazards associated with Office Electrical Safety. Overloaded circuits can also cause power loss, work interruptions, and loss of productivity. A “rats nest” of tangled electrical cords not only creates a fire hazard but also a personal injury risk from slips / trips / falls. Many personal offices, cubicles, and work areas are not set up to handle the additional electrical load from items such as space heaters, fans, coffee makers, and printers.


  • NEVER “daisy chain” power strips and extension cords.
  • Always check for damaged cords and replace if necessary.
  • Do not run cords across walkways and door. They may cause tripping hazards.
  • Do not overload circuits with too many plugs.
  • Never pull a plug out by the cord always grip it firmly at the base.
  • Keep all cords away from extreme heat of fires.
  • Never touch an exposed electrical wire.
  • Be sure there is no water leaking on or near electronic devices.
Do the Math

If you are going to use extension cords, power strips, or surge protectors with two or more appliances, you must add together the wattage rating for all appliances used on the cord. Add up all the power requirements.

This total should not exceed 80 percent of the rated capacity of the extension cord, power strip, or surge protector you are using.
  • Hair dryer 1,600 Portable heater 1,500
  • Vacuum cleaner 600 Portable fan 150
  • Television 150 Hot Plate 1,200
  • Light bulbs 40, 60, 75, or 100 Coffee Pot 1,200
Check with your maintenance or facility manager to be sure it is safe and acceptable to connect accessory devices and equipment in your work area.

Monday, 25 February 2019

Control of Hazardous Energy Lockout/Tagout

Control of Hazardous Energy
Lockout/Tagout

OSHA 3120
2002 (Revised)

Contents
Background
      How should I use this booklet?
      What is "lockout/tagout"?
      Why do I need to be concerned about lockout/tagout?

OSHA Coverage
      How do I know if the OSHA standard applies to me?.
      When does the standard not apply to service and maintenance activities performed in industries covered by Part 1910?
      How does the standard apply to general industry service and maintenance operations?

Requirements of the Standard
      What are OSHA's requirements?
      What must an energy-control procedure include?
      What must workers do before they begin service or maintenance activities?
      What must workers do before they remove their lockout or tagout device and reenergize the machine?
      When do I use lockout and how do I do it?
      How can I determine if the energy-isolating device can be locked out?
      What do I do if I cannot lock out the equipment?
      What other options do I have?
      When can tagout devices be used instead of lockout devices?
      What are the limitations of tagout devices?
      What are the requirements for lockout/tagout devices?
      What do employees need to know about lockout/tagout programs?
      When is training necessary?
      What if I need power to test or position machines, equipment, or components?
      What if I use outside contractors for service or maintenance procedures?
      What if a group performs service or maintenance activities?
      What if a shift changes during machine service or maintenance?
      How often do I need to review my lockout/tagout procedures?
      What does a review entail?
      What additional information does OSHA provide about lockout/tagout?

Commonly Used Terms

OSHA Assistance, Programs, and Services

      How can OSHA help me?
      How does safety and health program management assistance help employers and employees?
      What are state plans?
      How can consultation assistance help employers?
      Who can get consultation assistance and what does it cost?
      Can OSHA assure privacy to an employer who asks for consultation assistance?
      Can an employer be cited for violations after receiving consultation assistance?
      What incentives does OSHA provide for seeking consultation assistance?
      What are the Voluntary Protection Programs?
      How does the VPP work?
      How does VPP help employers and employees?
      How does OSHA monitor VPP sites?
      Can OSHA inspect an employer who is participating in the VPP?
      How can a partnership with OSHA improve worker safety and health?
      What is OSHA's Strategic Partnership Program (OSPP)?
      What do OSPPs do?
      What are the different kinds of OSPPs?
      What are the benefits of participation in the OSPP?
      Does OSHA have occupational safety and health training for employers and employees?
      Does OSHA give money to organizations for training and education?
      Does OSHA have other assistance materials available?
      What do I do in case of an emergency or to file a complaint?

OSHA Regional and Area Offices

OSHA Consultation Projects

OSHA-Approved Safety and Health Plans

Background
How should I use this booklet?

This booklet presents OSHA's general requirements for controlling hazardous energy during service or maintenance of machines or equipment. It is not intended to replace or to supplement OSHA standards regarding the control of hazardous energy. After reading this booklet, employers and other interested parties are urged to review the OSHA standards on the control of hazardous energy to gain a complete understanding of the requirements regarding the control of hazardous energy. These standards, as well as other relevant resources, are identified throughout this publication.

What is "lockout/tagout"?

"Lockout/tagout" refers to specific practices and procedures to safeguard employees from the unexpected energization or startup of machinery and equipment, or the release of hazardous energy during service or maintenance activities.1 This requires, in part, that a designated inpidual turns off and disconnects the machinery or equipment from its energy source(s) before performing service or maintenance and that the authorized employee(s) either lock or tag the energy-isolating device(s) to prevent the release of hazardous energy and take steps to verify that the energy has been isolated effectively. If the potential exists for the release of hazardous stored energy or for the reaccumulation of stored energy to a hazardous level, the employer must ensure that the employee(s) take steps to prevent injury that may result from the release of the stored energy.

Lockout devices hold energy-isolation devices in a safe or"off" position. They provide protection by preventing machines or equipment from becoming energized because they are positive restraints that no one can remove without a key or other unlocking mechanism, or through extraordinary means, such as bolt cutters. Tagout devices, by contrast, are prominent warning devices that an authorized employee fastens to energy-isolating devices to warn employees not to reenergize the machine while he or she services or maintains it. Tagout devices are easier to remove and, by themselves, provide employees with less protection than do lockout devices.

Why do I need to be concerned about lockout/tagout?

Employees can be seriously or fatally injured if machinery they service or maintain unexpectedly energizes, starts up, or releases stored energy. OSHA's standard on the Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout), found in Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 1910.147, spells out the steps employers must take to prevent accidents associated with hazardous energy. The standard addresses practices and procedures necessary to disable machinery and prevent the release of potentially hazardous energy while maintenance or servicing activities are performed.

Two other OSHA standards also contain energy control provisions: 29 CFR 1910.269 and 1910.333. In addition, some standards relating to specific types of machinery contain deenergization requirements—such as 29 CFR 1910.179(l)(2)(i)(c) (requiring the switches to be "open and locked in the open position" before performing preventive maintenance on overhead and gantry cranes).2 The provisions of Part 1910.147 apply in conjunction with these machine-specific standards to assure that employees will be adequately protected against hazardous energy.

1 The standard refers to servicing and maintaining "machines or equipment." Although the terms "machine" and "equipment" have distinct meanings, this booklet uses the term "machines" to refer both to machines and equipment. This is done for purposes of brevity only, and readers should not infer that it is intended to limit the scope of the standard. The term "equipment" is broad in scope and encompasses all types of equipment, including process equipment such as piping systems.

2 The standard provides a limited exception to the requirement that energy control procedures be documented. If an employer can demonstrate the existence of EACH of the eight elements listed in 1910.147(c)(4)(i), the employer is not required to document the energy control procedure. However, the exception terminates if circumstances change and ANY of the elements no longer exist.

OSHA Coverage
How do I know if the OSHA standard applies to me?

If your employees service or maintain machines where the unexpected startup, energization, or the release of stored energy could cause injury, the standard likely applies to you. The standard applies to all sources of energy, including, but not limited to: mechanical, electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, and thermal energy.

The standard does not cover electrical hazards from work on, near, or with conductors or equipment in electric utilization (premise wiring) installations, which are outlined by Subpart S of 29 CFR Part 1910. You can find the specific lockout and tagout provisions for electrical shock and burn hazards in 29 CFR Part 1910.333. Controlling hazardous energy in installations for the exclusive purpose of power generation, transmission, and distribution, including related equipment for communication or metering, is covered by 29 CFR 1910.269.

The standard also does not cover the agriculture, construction, and maritime industries or oil and gas well drilling and servicing. Other standards concerning the control of hazardous energy, however, apply in many of these industries/situations.

When does the standard not apply to service and maintenance activities performed in industries covered by Part 1910?

The standard does not apply to general industry service and maintenance activities in the following situations, when:
  • Exposure to hazardous energy is controlled completely by unplugging the equipment from an electric outlet and where the employee doing the service or maintenance has exclusive control of the plug. This applies only if electricity is the only form of hazardous energy to which employees may be exposed. This exception encompasses many portable hand tools and some cord and plug connected machinery and equipment.
  • An employee performs hot-tap operations on pressurized pipelines that distribute gas, steam, water, or petroleum products, for which the employer shows the following:
    - Continuity of service is essential;
    - Shutdown of the system is impractical; and
    - The employee follows documented procedures and uses special equipment that provides proven, effective employee protection.
  • The employee is performing minor tool changes or other minor servicing activities that are routine, repetitive, and integral to production, and that occur during normal production operations. In these cases, employees must have effective, alternative protection.
How does the standard apply to general industry service and maintenance operations?

The standard applies to the control of hazardous energy when employees are involved in service or maintenance activities such as constructing, installing, setting up, adjusting, inspecting, modifying, and maintaining or servicing machines or equipment. These activities include lubricating, cleaning or unjamming machines, and making adjustments or tool changes, where the employees may be exposed to hazardous energy.

If a service or maintenance activity is part of the normal production operation, the employee performing the servicing may be subjected to hazards not normally associated with the production operation itself. Although machine guarding provisions in Subpart O of 29 CFR 1910 cover most normal production operations, workers doing service or maintenance activities during normal production operations must follow lockout/tagout procedures if they:
  • Remove or bypass machine guards or other safety devices,
  • Place any part of their bodies in or near a machine's point of operation, or
  • Place any part of their bodies in a danger zone associated with machine operations.
Work involving minor tool changes and adjustments or other minor servicing activities that are routine, repetitive, and integral to the use of the production equipment and that occur during normal production operations are not covered by the lockout/tagout standard. This exception is limited, however, and applies only when economic considerations prevent the use of prescribed energy-isolation measures and when the employer provides and requires alternative measures to ensure effective, alternative protection.

Whenever the standard is applicable, the machinery must be shut off and isolated from its energy sources, and lockout or tagout devices must be applied to the energy-isolation devices. In addition, the authorized employee(s) must take steps to verify that he or she has effectively isolated the energy. When there is stored or residual energy, the authorized employee(s) must take steps to render that energy safe. If the possibility exists for reaccumulation of stored energy to hazardous levels, the employer must ensure that the worker(s) perform verification steps regularly to detect such reaccumulation before it has the potential to cause injury.

Requirements of the Standard
What are OSHA's requirements?

OSHA's standard establishes minimum performance requirements for controlling hazardous energy. The standard specifies that employers must establish an energy-control program to ensure that employees isolate machines from their energy sources and render them inoperative before any employee services or maintains them.

As part of an energy-control program, employers must:
  • Establish energy-control procedures for removing the energy supply from machines and for putting appropriate lockout or tagout devices on the energy-isolating devices to prevent unexpected reenergization. When appropriate, the procedure also must address stored or potentially reaccumulated energy;
  • Train employees on the energy-control program, including the safe application, use, and removal of energy controls; and
  • Inspect these procedures periodically (at least annually) to ensure that they are being followed and that they remain effective in preventing employee exposure to hazardous energy.
If employers use tagout devices on machinery that can be locked out, they must adopt additional measures to provide the same level of employee protection that lockout devices would provide. Within the broad boundaries of the standard, employers have the flexibility to develop programs and procedures that meet the needs of their inpidual workplaces and the particular types of machines being maintained or serviced.

What must an energy-control procedure include?

Employers must develop, document, and use procedures to control potentially hazardous energy.3 The procedures explain what employees must know and do to control hazardous energy effectively when they service or maintain machinery. If this information is the same for the various machines used at a workplace, then a single energy-control procedure may suffice. For example, similar machines (those using the same type and magnitude of energy) that have the same or similar types of control measures can be covered by a single procedure. Employers must develop separate energy-control procedures if their workplaces have more variable conditions such as multiple energy sources, different power connections, or different control sequences that workers must follow to shut down various pieces of machinery.

The energy-control procedures must outline the scope, purpose, authorization, rules, and techniques that employees will use to control hazardous energy sources, as well as the means that will be used to enforce compliance. These procedures must provide employees at least the following information:
  • A statement on how to use the procedures;
  • Specific procedural steps to shut down, isolate, block, and secure machines;
  • Specific steps designating the safe placement, removal, and transfer of lockout/tagout devices and identifying who has responsibility for the lockout/tagout devices; and
  • Specific requirements for testing machines to determine and verify the effectiveness of lockout devices, tagout devices, and other energy-control measures.

3The standard provides a limited exception to the requirement that energy control procedures be documented. If an employer can demonstrate the existence of EACH of the eight elements listed in 1910.147(c)(4)(i), the employer is not required to document the energy control procedure. However, the exception terminates if circumstances change and ANY of the elements no longer exist.

In Appendix A to 1910.147, OSHA provides a Typical Minimal Lockout Procedure for employers to consult when preparing their own specific energy-control procedures. The outline is a nonmandatory guideline to help employers and employees comply with the standard. Nothing in the appendix adds to or detracts from any of the requirements in the standard.

What must workers do before they begin service or maintenance activities?

Before beginning service or maintenance, the following steps must be accomplished in sequence and according to the specific provisions of the employer's energy-control procedure:
  1. Prepare for shutdown;
  2. Shut down the machine;
  3. Disconnect or isolate the machine from the energy source(s);
  4. Apply the lockout or tagout device(s) to the energy-isolating device(s);
  5. Release, restrain, or otherwise render safe all potential hazardous stored or residual energy. If a possibility exists for reaccumulation of hazardous energy, regularly verify during the service and maintenance that such energy has not reaccumulated to hazardous levels; and
  6. Verify the isolation and deenergization of the machine.
What must workers do before they remove their lockout or tagout device and reenergize the machine?

Employees who work on deenergized machinery may be seriously injured or killed if someone removes lockout/tagout devices and reenergizes machinery without their knowledge. Thus, it is extremely important that all employees respect lockout and tagout devices and that only the person(s) who applied these devices remove them.

Before removing lockout or tagout devices, the employees must take the following steps in accordance with the specific provisions of the employer's energy-control procedure:
  • Inspect machines or their components to assure that they are operationally intact and that nonessential items are removed from the area; and
  • Check to assure that everyone is positioned safely and away from machines.
After removing the lockout or tagout devices but before reenergizing the machine, the employer must assure that all employees who operate or work with the machine, as well as those in the area where service or maintenance is performed, know that the devices have been removed and that the machine is capable of being reenergized. (See Sections 6(e) and (f) of 29 CFR Part 1910.147 for specific requirements.) In the rare situation in which the employee who placed the lockout/tagout device is unable to remove that device, another person may remove it under the direction of the employer, provided that the employer strictly adheres to the specific procedures outlined in the standard. (See 29 CFR 1910.147(e)(3).)

When do I use lockout and how do I do it?

You must use a lockout program (or tagout program that provides a level of protection equal to that achieved through lockout) whenever your employees engage in service or maintenance operations on machines that are capable of being locked out and that expose them to hazardous energy from unexpected energization, startup, or release of stored energy.

The primary way to prevent the release of hazardous energy during service and maintenance activities is by using energy-isolating devices such as manually operated circuit breakers, disconnect switches, and line valves and safety blocks. Lockout requires use of a lock or other lockout device to hold the energy-isolating device in a safe position to prevent machinery from becoming reenergized. Lockout also requires employees to follow an established procedure to ensure that machinery will not be reenergized until the same employee who placed the lockout device on the energy-isolating device removes it.

How can I determine if the energy-isolating device can be locked out?

An energy-isolating device is considered "capable of being locked out" if it meets one of the following requirements:
  • Is designed with a hasp or other part to which you can attach a lock such as a lockable electric disconnect switch;
  • Has a locking mechanism built into it; or
  • Can be locked without dismantling, rebuilding, or replacing the energy-isolating device or permanently altering its energy-control capability, such as a lockable valve cover or circuit breaker blockout.
What do I do if I cannot lock out the equipment?

Sometimes it is not possible to lock out the energy-isolating device associated with the machinery. In that case, you must securely fasten a tagout device as close as safely possible to the energy-isolating device in a position where it will be immediately obvious to anyone attempting to operate the device. You also must meet all of the tagout provisions of the standard. The tag alerts employees to the hazard of reenergization and states that employees may not operate the machinery to which it is attached until the tag is removed in accordance with an established procedure.

What other options do I have?

If it is possible to lock out an energy-isolating device, employers must use lockout devices unless they develop, document, and use a tagout procedure that provides employees with a level of protection equal to that provided by a lockout device. In a tagout program, an employer can attain an equal level of protection by complying with all tagout-related provisions of the standard and using at least one added safety measure that prevents unexpected reenergization. Such measures might include removing an isolating circuit element, blocking a controlling switch, opening an extra disconnecting device, or removing a valve handle to minimize the possibility that machines might inadvertently be reenergized while employees perform service and maintenance activities.

When can tagout devices be used instead of lockout devices?

When an energy-isolating device cannot be locked out, the employer must modify or replace the energy-isolating device to make it capable of being locked out or use a tagout system. Whenever employers significantly repair, renovate, or modify machinery or install new or replacement machinery, however, they must ensure that the energy-isolating devices for the machinery are capable of being locked out.

Tagout devices may be used on energy-isolating devices that are capable of being locked out if the employer develops and implements the tagout in a way that provides employees with a level of protection equal to that achieved through a lockout system.

When using a tagout system, the employer must comply with all tagout-related provisions of the standard and train employees in the limitations of tags, in addition to providing normal hazardous energy control training for all employees.

What are the limitations of tagout devices?

A tagout device is a prominent warning that clearly states that the machinery being controlled must not be operated until the tag is removed in accordance with an established procedure. Tags are essentially warning devices and do not provide the physical restraint of a lock. Tags may evoke a false sense of security. For these reasons, OSHA considers lockout devices to be more secure and more effective than tagout devices in protecting employees from hazardous energy.

What are the requirements for lockout/tagout devices?

Whether lockout or tagout devices are used, they must be the only devices the employer uses in conjunction with energy-isolating devices to control hazardous energy. The employer must provide these devices and they must be singularly identified and not used for other purposes. In addition, they must have the following characteristics:
  • Durable enough to withstand workplace conditions. Tagout devices must not deteriorate or become illegible even when used with corrosive components such as acid or alkali chemicals or in wet environments.
  • Standardized according to color, shape, or size. Tagout devices also must be standardized according to print and format. Tags must be legible and understandable by all employees. They must warn employees about the hazards if the machine is energized, and offer employees clear instruction such as: "Do Not Start," "Do Not Open," "Do Not Close," "Do Not Energize," or "Do Not Operate."
  • Substantial enough to minimize the likelihood of premature or accidental removal. Employees should be able to remove locks only by using excessive force with special tools such as bolt cutters or other metal-cutting tools. Tag attachments must be non-reusable, self-locking, and non-releasable, with a minimum unlocking strength of 50 pounds. Tags must be attachable by hand, and the device for attaching the tag should be a one-piece nylon cable tie or its equivalent so it can withstand all environments and conditions.
  • Labeled to identify the specific employees authorized to apply and remove them.
What do employees need to know about lockout/tagout programs?

Training must ensure that employees understand the purpose, function, and restrictions of the energy-control program. Employers must provide training specific to the needs of "authorized," "affected," and "other" employees.

"Authorized" employees are those responsible for implementing the energy-control procedures or performing the service or maintenance activities. They need the knowledge and skills necessary for the safe application, use, and removal of energy-isolating devices. They also need training in the following:
  • Hazardous energy source recognition;
  • The type and magnitude of the hazardous energy sources in the workplace; and
  • Energy-control procedures, including the methods and means to isolate and control those energy sources.
"Affected" employees (usually machine operators or users) are employees who operate the relevant machinery or whose jobs require them to be in the area where service or maintenance is performed. These employees do not service or maintain machinery or perform lockout/tagout activities. Affected employees must receive training in the purpose and use of energy-control procedures. They also need to be able to do the following:
  • Recognize when the energy-control procedure is being used,
  • Understand the purpose of the procedure, and
  • Understand the importance of not tampering with lockout or tagout devices and not starting or using equipment that has been locked or tagged out.
All other employees whose work operations are or may be in an area where energy-control procedures are used must receive instruction regarding the energy-control procedure and the prohibition against removing a lockout or tagout device and attempting to restart, reenergize, or operate the machinery.

In addition, if tagout devices are used, all employees must receive training regarding the limitations of tags. (See 29 CFR 1910.147(c)(7)(ii).)

When is training necessary?

The employer must provide initial training before starting service and maintenance activities and must provide retraining as necessary. In addition, the employer must certify that the training has been given to all employees covered by the standard. The certification must contain each employee's name and dates of training.

Employers must provide retraining for all authorized and affected employees whenever there is a change in the following:
  • Job assignments,
  • Machinery or processes that present a new hazard, or
  • Energy-control procedures.
Retraining also is necessary whenever a periodic inspection reveals, or an employer has reason to believe, that shortcomings exist in an employee's knowledge or use of the energy-control procedure.

What if I need power to test or position machines, equipment, or components?

OSHA allows the temporary removal of lockout or tagout devices and the reenergization of the machine only in limited situations for particular tasks that require energization—for example, when power is needed to test or position machines, equipment, or components. However, this temporary exception applies only for the limited time required to perform the particular task requiring energization. Employers must provide effective protection from hazardous energy when employees perform these operations. The following steps must be performed in sequence before reenergization:
  1. Clear tools and materials from machines.
  2. Clear employees from the area around the machines.
  3. Remove the lockout or tagout devices as specified in the standard.
  4. Energize the machine and proceed with testing or positioning.
  5. Deenergize all systems, isolate the machine from the energy source, and reapply energy-control measures if additional service or maintenance is required.


The employer must develop, document, and use energy-control procedures that establish a sequence of actions to follow whenever reenergization is required as a part of a service or maintenance activity, since employees may be exposed to significant risks during these transition periods.

What if I use outside contractors for service or maintenance procedures?

If an outside contractor services or maintains machinery, the onsite employer and the contractor must inform each other of their respective lockout or tagout procedures. The onsite employer also must ensure that employees understand and comply with all requirements of the contractor's energy-control program(s).

What if a group performs service or maintenance activities?

When a crew, department, or other group performs service or maintenance, they must use a procedure that provides all employees a level of protection equal to that provided by a personal lockout or tagout device. Each employee in the group must have control over the sources of hazardous energy while he or she is involved in service and maintenance activities covered by the standard. Personal control is achieved when each authorized employee affixes a personal lockout/tagout device to a group lockout mechanism instead of relying on a supervisor or other person to provide protection against hazardous energy. Detailed requirements of inpidual responsibilities are provided in 29 CFR 1910.147(f)(3)(ii)(A) through (D). Appendix C of OSHA Directive STD 1-7.3, 29 CFR 1910.147, the Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout)-Inspection Procedures and Interpretive Guidance, (September 11, 1990), provides additional guidance.

What if a shift changes during machine service or maintenance?

Employers must make sure that there is a continuity of lockout or tagout protection. This includes the orderly transfer of lockout or tagout device protection between outgoing and incoming shifts to control hazardous energy. When lockout or tagout devices remain on energy-isolation devices from a previous shift, the incoming shift members must verify for themselves that the machinery is effectively isolated and deenergized.

How often do I need to review my lockout/tagout procedures?

Employees are required to review their procedures at least once a year to ensure that they provide adequate worker protection. As part of the review, employers must correct any deviations and inadequacies identified in the energy-control procedure or its application.

What does a review entail?

The periodic inspection is intended to assure that employees are familiar with their responsibilities under the procedure and continue to implement energy-control procedures properly. The inspector, who must be an authorized person not involved in using the particular control procedure being inspected, must be able to determine the following:
  • Employees are following steps in the energy-control procedure;
  • Employees involved know their responsibilities under the procedure; and
  • The procedure is adequate to provide the necessary protection, and what changes, if any, are needed.
For a lockout procedure, the periodic inspection must include a review of each authorized employee's responsibilities under the energy-control procedure being inspected. Where tagout is used, the inspector's review also extends to affected employees because of the increased importance of their role in avoiding accidental or inadvertent activation of the machinery. In addition, the employer must certify that the designated inspectors perform periodic inspections. The certification must specify the following:
  • Machine or equipment on which the energy-control procedure was used,
  • Date of the inspection,
  • Names of employees included in the inspection, and
  • Name of the person who performed the inspection.
What additional information does OSHA provide about lockout/tagout?

To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the requirements for controlling hazardous energy, employers and other interested persons should review the following:
  • OSHA standards with provisions regarding the control of hazardous energy such as 29 CFR 1910.147, The control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout); 29 CFR 1910.269, Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution; and 29 CFR 1910.333, Selection and use of work practices. Employers in the maritime, agriculture, and construction industries are urged to review the provisions for the control of hazardous energy contained in 29 CFR Parts 1915, 1917, 1918, 1925, and 1926.
  • The regulatory preambles to 29 CFR 1910.147 (54 Federal Register 36644 (September 1, 1989)) and 1910.269 (59 Federal Register 4320 (January 31, 1994)), which contain comments from interested parties and OSHA's explanation for the provisions of the standards.
  • OSHA instructions concerning the control of hazardous energy—Directive CPL 2-1.18A, Enforcement of the Electrical Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution Standard (October 20, 1997) and OSHA Directive STD 1-7.3, 29 CFR 1910.147, the Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout) -Inspection Procedures and Interpretive Guidance, (September 11, 1990).
  • OSHA letters of interpretation regarding the application of standards concerning the control of hazardous energy.
Most of these documents are available on the OSHA website at www.osha.gov.

Additionally, OSHA offers a variety of web-based tools to help educate employers and employees about the lockout/tagout standard and how to apply it in their workplace. These include the following:
  • The Lockout/Tagout Interactive Training Program, which includes a tutorial, five abstracts with a detailed discussion of major lockout/tagout issues involved, and interactive case studies;
  • The Lockout/Tagout Plus Expert Advisor, an interactive, expert, diagnostic software package to help users understand and apply OSHA standards that protect workers from the release of hazardous energy; and
  • The Lockout/Tagout electronic Compliance Assistant Tool (eCAT), an illustrated tool to help businesses identify and correct workplace hazards.
These tools are available on the OSHA website at www.osha.gov. For the Lockout/Tagout Interactive Training Program, click on Technical Links. For the Expert Advisor and eCAT, click on eTools.

Commonly Used Terms
Affected employee. An employee whose job requires him/her to operate or use a machine or equipment on which servicing or maintenance is being performed under lockout or tagout, or whose job requires him/her to work in an area in which such servicing or maintenance is being performed.

Authorized employee. A person who locks out or tags out machines or equipment in order to perform servicing or maintenance on that machine or equipment. An affected employee becomes an authorized employee when that employee's duties include performing servicing or maintenance covered under the standard.

Capable of being locked out. An energy-isolating device is capable of being locked out if it has a hasp or other means of attachment to which, or through which, a lock can be affixed, or it has a locking mechanism built into it. Other energy-isolating devices are capable of being locked out, if lockout can be achieved, without the need to dismantle, rebuild, or replace the energyisolating device or permanently alter its energy control capability.

Energized. Connected to an energy source or containing residual or stored energy.

Energy-isolating device. A mechanical device that physically prevents the transmission or release of energy, including but not limited to the following: a manually operated electrical circuit breaker; a disconnect switch; a manually operated switch by which the conductors of a circuit can be disconnected from all ungrounded supply conductors, and in addition, no pole can be operated independently; a line valve; a block; and any similar device used to block or isolate energy. Push buttons, selector switches and other control circuit-type devices are not energy-isolating devices.

Energy source. Any source of electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, thermal, or other energy.

Hot tap. A procedure used in the repair, maintenance, and services activities, which involve welding on a piece of equipment (pipelines, vessels, or tanks) under pressure, in order to install connections or appurtenances. It is commonly used to replace or add sections of pipeline without the interruption of service for air, gas, water, steam, and petrochemical distribution systems.

Lockout. The placement of a lockout device on an energy-isolating device, in accordance with an established procedure, ensuring that the energy-isolating device and the equipment being controlled cannot be operated until the lockout device is removed.

Lockout device. A device that uses a positive means such as a lock, either key or combination type, to hold an energy-isolating device in the safe position and prevent the energizing of a machine or equipment. Included are blank flanges and bolted slip blinds.

Normal production operations. The utilization of a machine or equipment to perform its intended production function.

Servicing and/or maintenance. Workplace activities such as constructing, installing, setting up, adjusting, inspecting, modifying, and maintaining and/or servicing machines or equipment. These activities include lubricating, cleaning or unjamming machines or equipment and making adjustments or tool changes where the employee may be exposed to the unexpected energization or startup of the equipment or release of hazardous energy.

Setting up. Any work performed to prepare a machine or equipment to perform its normal production operation.

Tagout. The placement of a tagout device on an energy-isolating device, in accordance with an established procedure, to indicate that the energy-isolating device and the equipment being controlled may not be operated until the tagout device is removed.

Tagout device. A prominent warning device, such as a tag and a means of attachment, which can be securely fastened to an energy-isolating device in accordance with an established procedure, to indicate that the energy-isolating device and the equipment being controlled may not be operated until the tagout device is removed.

OSHA Assistance, Programs, and Services
How can OSHA help me?

OSHA can provide extensive help through a variety of programs, including assistance about safety and health programs, state plans, workplace consultations, voluntary protection programs, strategic partnerships, training and education, and more.

How does safety and health program management assistance help employers and employees?

Effective management of worker safety and health protection is a decisive factor in reducing the extent and severity of work-related injuries and illnesses and their related costs. In fact, an effective safety and health program forms the basis of good worker protection and can save time and money —about $4 for every dollar spent—and increase productivity.

To assist employers and employees in developing effective safety and health programs, OSHA published recommended Safety and Health Program Management Guidelines (Federal Register 54(18):3908-3916, January 26, 1989). These voluntary guidelines can be applied to all worksites covered by OSHA.

The guidelines identify four general elements that are critical to the development of a successful safety and health management program:
  • Management leadership and employee involvement,
  • Worksite analysis,
  • Hazard prevention and control, and
  • Safety and health training.
The guidelines recommend specific actions under each of these general elements to achieve an effective safety and health program. The Federal Register notice is available online at www.osha.gov.

What are state plans?

State plans are OSHA-approved job safety and health programs operated by inpidual states or territories instead of Federal OSHA. The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSH Act) encourages states to develop and operate their own job safety and health plans and permits state enforcement of OSHA standards if the state has an approved plan. Once OSHA approves a state plan, it funds 50 percent of the program's operating costs. State plans must provide standards and enforcement programs, as well as voluntary compliance activities that are at least as effective as those of Federal OSHA.

There are 26 state plans: 23 cover both private and public (state and local governments) employment, and 3 (Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York) cover only the public sector. For more information on state plans, see the listing at the end of this publication, or visit OSHA's website at www.osha.gov.

How can consultation assistance help employers?

In addition to helping employers identify and correct specific hazards, OSHA's consultation service provides free, onsite assistance in developing and implementing effective workplace safety and health management systems that emphasize the prevention of worker injuries and illnesses.

Comprehensive consultation assistance provided by OSHA includes a hazard survey of the worksite and an appraisal of all aspects of the employer's existing safety and health management system. In addition, the service offers assistance to employers in developing and implementing an effective safety and health management system. Employers also may receive training and education services, as well as limited assistance away from the worksite.

Who can get consultation assistance and what does it cost?

Consultation assistance is available to small employers with fewer than 250 employees at a fixed site and no more than 500 corporatewide who want help in establishing and maintaining a safe and healthful workplace.

Funded largely by OSHA, the service is provided at no cost to the employer. Primarily developed for smaller employers with more hazardous operations, the consultation service is delivered by state governments employing professional safety and health consultants. No penalties are proposed or citations issued for hazards identified by the consultant. The employer's only obligation is to correct all identified serious hazards within the agreed-upon correction time frame.

Can OSHA assure privacy to an employer who asks for consultation assistance?

OSHA provides consultation assistance to the employer with the assurance that his or her name and firm and any information about the workplace will not be routinely reported to OSHA enforcement staff.

Can an employer be cited for violations after receiving consultation assistance?

If an employer fails to eliminate or control a serious hazard within the agreed-upon timeframe, the Consultation Project Manager must refer the situation to the OSHA enforcement office for appropriate action. This is a rare occurrence, however, since employers request the service for the expressed purpose of identifying and fixing hazards in their workplaces.

What incentives does OSHA provide for seeking consultation assistance?

Under the consultation program, certain exemplary employers may request participation in OSHA's Safety and Health Achievement Recognition Program (SHARP). Eligibility for participation in SHARP includes, but is not limited to, receiving a full-service, comprehensive consultation visit, correcting all identified hazards, and developing an effective safety and health management system.

Employers accepted into SHARP may receive an exemption from programmed inspections (not complaint or accident investigation inspections) for a period of 1 year initially, or 2 years upon renewal.

For more information concerning consultation assistance, see the list of consultation offices beginning on page 34, contact your regional or area OSHA office, or visit OSHA's website at www.osha.gov.

What are the Voluntary Protection Programs?

Voluntary Protection Programs (VPPs) represent one part of OSHA's effort to extend worker protection beyond the minimum required by OSHA standards. VPP—along with onsite consultation services, full-service area offices, and OSHA's Strategic Partnership Program (OSPP)—represents a cooperative approach which, when coupled with an effective enforcement program, expands worker protection to help meet the goals of the OSH Act.

How does the VPP work?

There are three levels of VPPs: Star, Merit, and Demonstration. All are designed to do the following:
  • Recognize employers who have successfully developed and implemented effective and comprehensive safety and health management systems;
  • Encourage these employers to continuously improve their safety and health management systems;
  • Motivate other employers to achieve excellent safety and health results in the same outstanding way; and
  • Establish a relationship between employers, employees, and OSHA that is based on cooperation.
How does VPP help employers and employees?

VPP participation can mean the following:
  • Reduced numbers of worker fatalities, injuries, and illnesses;
  • Lost-workday case rates generally 50 percent below industry averages;
  • Lower workers' compensation and other injury- and illness-related costs;
  • Improved employee motivation to work safely, leading to a better quality of life at work;
  • Positive community recognition and interaction;
  • Further improvement and revitalization of already-good safety and health programs; and
  • A positive relationship with OSHA.
How does OSHA monitor VPP sites?

OSHA reviews an employer's VPP application and conducts a VPP Onsite Evaluation to verify that the safety and health management systems described are operating effectively at the site. OSHA conducts onsite evaluations on a regular basis, annually for participants at the Demonstration level, every 18 months for Merit, and every 3 to 5 years for Star. Each February, all participants must send a copy of their most recent annual evaluation to their OSHA regional office. This evaluation must include the worksite's record of injuries and illnesses for the past year.

Can OSHA inspect an employer who is participating in the VPP?

Sites participating in VPP are not scheduled for regular, programmed inspections. OSHA handles any employee complaints, serious accidents, or significant chemical releases that may occur at VPP sites according to routine enforcement procedures.

Additional information on VPP is available from OSHA national, regional, and area offices, listed beginning on page 34. Also, see Outreach at OSHA's website at www.osha.gov.

How can a partnership with OSHA improve worker safety and health?

OSHA has learned firsthand that voluntary, cooperative partnerships with employers, employees, and unions can be a useful alternative to traditional enforcement and an effective way to reduce worker deaths, injuries, and illnesses. This is especially true when a partnership leads to the development and implementation of a comprehensive workplace safety and health management system.

What is OSHA's Strategic Partnership Program (OSPP)?

OSHA Strategic Partnerships are alliances among labor, management, and government to foster improvements in workplace safety and health. These partnerships are voluntary, cooperative relationships between OSHA, employers, employee representatives, and others such as trade unions, trade and professional associations, universities, and other government agencies. OSPPs are the newest member of OSHA's family of cooperative programs.

What do OSPPs do?

These partnerships encourage, assist, and recognize the efforts of the partners to eliminate serious workplace hazards and achieve a high level of worker safety and health. Whereas OSHA's Consultation Program and VPP entail one-on-one relationships between OSHA and inpidual worksites, most strategic partnerships seek to have a broader impact by building cooperative relationships with groups of employers and employees.

What are the different kinds of OSPPs?

There are two major types:
  • Comprehensive, which focuses on establishing comprehensive safety and health management systems at partnering worksites; and
  • Limited, which helps identify and eliminate hazards associated with worker deaths, injuries, and illnesses, or have goals other than establishing comprehensive worksite safety and health programs.
OSHA is interested in creating new OSPPs at the national, regional, and local levels. OSHA also has found limited partnerships to be valuable. Limited partnerships might address the elimination or control of a specific industry hazard.

What are the benefits of participation in the OSPP?

Like VPP, OSPP can mean the following:
  • Fewer worker fatalities, injuries, and illnesses;
  • Lower workers' compensation and other injury- and illness-related costs;
  • Improved employee motivation to work safely, leading to a better quality of life at work and enhanced productivity;
  • Positive community recognition and interaction;
  • Development of or improvement in safety and health management systems; and
  • Positive interaction with OSHA.
For more information about this program, contact your nearest OSHA office or go to the agency website at www.osha.gov.

Does OSHA have occupational safety and health training for employers and employees?

Yes. The OSHA Training Institute in Des Plaines, IL, provides basic and advanced training and education in safety and health for federal and state compliance officers, state consultants, other federal agency personnel, and private-sector employers, employees, and their representatives.

Institute courses cover perse safety and health topics including electrical hazards, machine guarding, personal protective equipment, ventilation, and ergonomics. The facility includes classrooms, laboratories, a library, and an audiovisual unit. The laboratories contain various demonstrations and equipment, such as power presses, woodworking and welding shops, a complete industrial ventilation unit, and a sound demonstration laboratory. More than 57 courses dealing with subjects such as safety and health in the construction industry and methods of compliance with OSHA standards are available for personnel in the private sector.

In addition, OSHA's 73 area offices are full-service centers offering a variety of informational services such as personnel for speaking engagements, publications, audiovisual aids on workplace hazards, and technical advice.

Does OSHA give money to organizations for training and education?

OSHA awards grants through its Susan Harwood Training Grant Program to nonprofit organizations to provide safety and health training and education to employers and workers in the workplace. The grants focus on programs that will educate workers and employers in small business (fewer than 250 employees), train workers and employers about new OSHA standards, or a high-risk activities or hazards. Grants are awarded for 1 year and may be renewed for an additional 12 months depending on whether the grantee has performed satisfactorily.

OSHA expects each organization awarded a grant to develop a training and/or education program that addresses a safety and health topic named by OSHA, recruit workers and employers for the training, and conduct the training. Grantees are also expected to follow up with people who have been trained to find out what changes were made to reduce the hazards in their workplaces as a result of the training.

Each year OSHA has a national competition that is announced in the Federal Register and on the Internet at www.osha.gov/ Training/sharwood/sharwood.html. If you do not have access to the Internet, you can contact the OSHA Office of Training and Education, 1555 Times Drive, Des Plaines, IL 60018, (847) 297-4810, for more information.

Does OSHA have other assistance materials available?

Yes. OSHA has a variety of materials and tools available on its website at www.osha.gov. These include eTools, Expert Advisors, Electronic Compliance Assistance Tools (eCATS), Technical Links, regulations, directives, publications, videos, and other information for employers and employees. OSHA's software programs and compliance assistance tools walk you through challenging safety and health issues and common problems to find the best solutions for your workplace. OSHA's comprehensive publications program includes more than 100 titles to help you understand OSHA requirements and programs.

OSHA's CD-ROM includes standards, interpretations, directives, and more and can be purchased on CD-ROM from the U.S. Government Printing Office. To order, write to the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402, or phone (202) 512-1800. Specify OSHA Regulations, Documents and Technical Information on CD-ROM (ORDT), GPO Order No. S/N 729-013-00000-5.

What do I do in case of an emergency or to file a complaint?

To report an emergency, file a complaint, or seek OSHA advice, assistance, or products, call (800) 321-OSHA or contact your nearest OSHA regional or area office listed at the end of this publication. The teletypewriter (TTY) number is (877) 889-5627.

You can also file a complaint online and obtain more information on OSHA federal and state programs by visiting OSHA's website at www.osha.gov.

For more information on grants, training, and education, write: OSHA Training Institute, Office of Training and Education, 1555 Times Drive, Des Plaines, IL 60018; call (847) 297-4810; or see Outreach on OSHA's website at www.osha.gov.

Thursday, 7 February 2019

Saving Lives by lock out / Tag out

Saving Lives by lock out / Tag out

The rack out / de-energize standards is designed to prevent injuries and deaths by accidental start up of electrical equipment's during maintenance or servicing. It save lives. Yet unfortunate tragedies do still occur. Many of them could have been prevented if the rack-out / de-energize procedures were followed correctly. This safety topic provides a review of de-energizing procedure. Remember the standard can work only if it is used correctly every time.

De-energizing procedures


  • Obtain necessary permit to rack-out / de-energize
  • Verify correct tag no mentioned in the permit with field operator and the department working on the equipment.
  • Make sure the equipment is not running. If it is running, get it stopped by operators.
  • Isolate, put multi lock hasp and yellow padlock for electrical and keep the key in electrical department custody.
  • Other departments shall use their locks (for ex., green lock for operations, blue lock for mechanical dept. and black for others) and keep keys in their custody.
  • Proper tagging must be done clearly mentioning the purpose of rack-out / de-energize, time/date etc.etc.
  • Enter all activities in substation log book.
  • An attempt to start the equipment must be made to verify that the equipment cannot start during the maintenance activity.


Energizing procedures

  • A separate permit shall be obtained to energize the equipment.
  • Visually confirm that the activity on the equipment is complete and it is safe to energize.
  • Each dept. who placed a lock must remove it themselves before energizing.
  • Remove yellow lock (electrical shall be the last lock to be removed) and energize the equipment.
  • Enter the activity in the substation log book.


Procedures for performing rack-out / de-energize must be followed consistently. Don’t be tempted to take shortcuts for small jobs, even if the rack-out procedure takes longer than the job itself.

Thursday, 16 August 2018

Electrical power tools


Electrical power tools

Hand held power tools are used in a variety of industries. Power tools can present a number of hazards.

Hazards:

  • Ground pin on plug is missing on a three-wired grounded power tool frame.
  • Cord has defects such as being frayed at any point between the equipment and the plug end.
  • Power tool housing has a defect.
  • Power tool is wet, if not designed for wet use.
  • Controls and other functions for the power tools do not work properly.
  • Guards do not work freely, are damaged or missing.
  • Presence of flammable or combustible vapors where a standard electrical motor driven power tool is to be used.
  • Power tools not unplugged or batteries not removed during tool changes.
  • Flying particles, dust or noise created by power tool use.
  • Loose clothing or long loose hair.

Safe procedures:

  • Be familiar with the manufacturers recommended use, maintenance and storage information.
  • Be sure you are trained and authorized to use the power tool.
  • Inspect the power tool for defects before use; if defective do not use. Tag it out of service.
  • Be sure the controls and other functions are working properly before use.
  • Make sure guards are present and work properly.
  • Use the power tool for its intended use.
  • Standard electrical motor driven powered tools should not be used where there are flammable or combustible vapors present.
  • Maintain, store and transport power tools in a manner to keep them clean and free from damage from impact, moisture or other risks.
  • Use eye protection, hearing protection or respiratory protection based on the hazard created by the power tool’s use.
  • Loose clothing should not be worn, and long hair should be secured to prevent injuries from entanglement in power tools.

Conclusion:

Be sure you are trained and authorized before using a power tool. Be sure the tool is in proper working order before use. Follow lockout/tagout procedures during tooling changes. Wear proper personal protective equipment related to the power tools application of use.

Electrical extension cord safety

Electrical extension cord safety


Extension cords are commonly used without thinking about the potential risks involved. Please be aware that use of extension cords can be dangerous and safe work practices are necessary to prevent accidents and injuries

Two types of extension cords:
 
  • Two wire extension cords are used for small appliances and should not be used in here.
  • Three-wire, grounded extension cords are much safer and are to be used with power tools and for other temporary applications.

Extension cords are not intended to be used in place of permanent wiring, so notify your supervisor if you need additional outlets.

Inspection, use and care:
 
  • Select extension cords that are rated for the electrical load and type of use, such as indoor vs. outdoor.
  • Check cords regularly for cracks, tears, exposed wires, missing ground plugs, etc.
  • Do not place cords under carpets or furniture and never string them through doorways, walls, windows, ceilings or floors.
  • Do not fasten an extension cord to a wall— even though staples are sold for this purpose.
  • Do not “daisy chain” extension cords together. Use one cord that’s long enough to do the job
  • Never pull on the cord to disconnect it; instead remove it by the plug.
  • Store cords safely when not in use.

Repairs:
 
Cord insulation and plugs are the primary protection against electrical shock. Both must remain in good condition at all times.
  • Only a qualified person should make repairs on a cord. Wrapping the damaged section with electrical tape is not “repairing” the cord.
  • Take damaged cords out of service, tag it for repair or replacement and advise your supervisor. New cords are available.
  • When discarding a bad cord, cut the cord into several pieces to render it useless.

Trips and Falls:

Serious injury can result from tripping over an extension cord.

  • Do not lay cords on the floor, in walkways, etc. Use good housekeeping to keep extension cords from becoming tripping hazards.
  • Notify your supervisor if you need anything to help keep cords off the floor.

Conclusion:

Don’t risk your safety or the safety of others by using damaged extension cords or by using extension cords improperly.

Friday, 10 August 2018

Electrical Safety Practices on the Job


Electrical Safety Practices on the Job

Electrical hazards expose workers to burns, electrocution, shock, arc flash / arc blast, fire, or explosions. Accidents involving electricity can be fatal. To prevent electrical incidents, every time you enter a job site remember to:



  • Identify Hazards – Do a job site analysis when entering the work zone.
  • Minimize Hazards – De-energize unused equipment, cover exposed live parts, use proper PPE and tools.
  • Anticipate Problems – If it can go wrong, it might. Be prepared for all worst case scenarios.
  • Have Training – Make sure that you and everyone you are working with is qualified and has proper training.


Responsibility For Safe Practices Around Electricity Include:

For Contractors
  • Comply with OSHA regulations.
  • Train employees on electrical safety.
  • Contact utility companies in advance to de-energize or insulate overhead power lines.
  • If asked to work live, verify with owner/client that de-energizing live electrical circuits/parts is not practical or would create a greater hazard.
  • Only allow work on live electrical circuits/parts in accordance with a permit system with specific procedures.
For Electrical Workers
  • De-energize and lock out or tag out electrical circuits/parts you will be working on or near.
  • Work only on live electrical circuits/parts in accordance with a permit system with specific procedures and if you are qualified to do so.
  • Wear appropriate personal protective equipment and use proper tools when de-energizing or testing live electrical circuits/parts or otherwise working live.
For All Construction Workers
  • Get electrical safety training.
  • Ensure machinery and power tools are properly grounded or double insulated.
  • Check all extension and power cords for wear and tear before use.
  • Disconnect the plug on any power tool or machinery before inspecting or repairing.
  • Keep at least 10 feet from live overhead power lines.
  • Keep metal objects away from live electrical circuits/parts.

Thursday, 9 August 2018

LOTO – Accidents Happen


LOTO – Accidents Happen

What if someone didn’t know that another person were working on a machine, or electrical outlet, and turned on the power?

Lockout/tagout/tryout is a safety procedure used to ensure that dangerous machines, equipment, or services are properly shut off and not able to be started up again before maintenance is completed.


I know about lockout/tagout, but why tryout? Workers have died (even recently) because they didn’t check the machine after performing the lockout/tagout procedure. The equipment’s potentially stored or residual energy can power the machine long enough to injure or kill anyone that may be working on it’s electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic, or tension components.

Employer have to get trained their employees to be trained in lockout/tagout/tryout procedures, and renew their training every three years. OHSAS standards require that employers establish energy controls procedures and a training program for employees. Employees must follow the established lockout/tagout procedure before performing maintenance.

What must workers do before they begin service or maintenance activities?

Before beginning service or maintenance, the following steps must be accomplished in sequence and according to the specific provisions of the employer’s energy-control procedure:
  • Prepare for shutdown;
  • Shut down the machine;
  • Disconnect or isolate the machine from the energy source's;
  • Apply the lockout or tagout device's to the energy-isolating device's;
  • Release, restrain, or render safe all potential hazardous stored or residual energy. If a possibility exists for re-accumulation of hazardous energy, regularly verify during service and maintenance that such energy has not re-accumulated to hazardous levels;
  • Verify the isolation and DE-energization of the machine.

Thursday, 2 August 2018

LOTO - More Than A Lock - Section 4

LOTO - More Than A Lock - Section 4


Lockout/Tagout is more than just putting a yellow lock on the main electrical disconnect to a machine or part of a machine. Knowing how to lockout something is critical.

Various energy sources and devices have different methods for ensuring the energy is isolated.

For electrical cabinets, in most case it is just a matter of placing a lock on the built-in hasp to the disconnect. However, other energy sources may require the use of additional lockout devices to accomplish the task.

We have many devices available to lockout different types of valves and the like. For gate valves similar to your home’s outside water hose valve, there are covers that encase the entire handle to prevent anyone from turning it.

For ball valves that do not have a place for a lock, there are devices built that will hold it in the off position (either parallel or perpendicular to the pipe) and can be locked in place.

For larger valves for large gas pipes we have lockable bags where the handle can be removed after being shut off and placed inside the bag and locked in place.

For pneumatic (air) quick disconnect hoses there is a device we have that the male end of the coupling goes into and gets locked into this device with a padlock.

There are numerous devices available for very specific needs and applications. If you are in a situation where you are unsure how to lockout a specific energy source, just ask . . . we have a device that can do it

LOTO - More Than A Lock - Section 3

LOTO - More Than A Lock - Section 3


Lockout/Tagout is more than just putting a yellow lock on the main electrical disconnect to a machine or part of a machine. Knowing what and where to lockout something is critical.

Prior to servicing that requires Lockout/Tagout you must evaluate the potential energy that could be released while working in that area or on a specific device. There are several types of energy:

  • Electrical energy to operate the device. 
  • Pnuematic energy or commonly known as air that controls various devices.
  • Steam that heats various devices. 
  • Natural Gas that is used in compustion devices 
  • Water that may be used to cool devices 
  • Hydraulics that may be used to control devices
  • Gravity that may play a part in something lifted off the ground.
  • Thermal energy that may cause things to remain hot after the source has been turned off.
  • As OSHA states in their standard, the purpose of LOTO is to prevent the “unexpected" energization or start up of the machines or equipment, or release of stored energy could cause injury to employees.


Depending on the task you are performing you need to evaluate and isolate the systems and sources of energy that could cause injury

LOTO - More Than A Lock - Section 2

LOTO - More Than A Lock - Section 2

Lockout/Tagout is more than just putting a yellow lock on the main electrical disconnect to a machine or part of a machine. When you are done, there are 3 very important steps you must do when removing a machine from a Lockout/Tagout state:

THREE STEPS FOR RESTART


1. INSPECT – inspect the equipment to be sure that –

  • All tools and other materials are remove. 
  • Machine is fully reassembled 
  • Guards and other safety devices are reinstalled 

2. NOTIFY – Be sure that –

  • All employees are safely positioned. 
  • All affected employees are notified of the restart 

3. REMOVE – Remove lockout devices.

  • Remember that only the person who put the lock on may remove it. 

Wednesday, 1 August 2018

Extension Cord Safety

Extension Cord Safety

The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) estimates every year many injuries associated with electric extension cords are treated in hospital emergency rooms. About half of the injuries involve fractures, lacerations, contusions or sprains from people tripping over extension cords. It also estimates that the most residential fires originate in extension cords every year, killing many people and injuring . The most frequent causes of such fires are short circuits, overloading, damage and/or misuse of extension cords.


Some tips for use of extension cords:
  • Use extension cords only when necessary and only on a temporary basis. Do not use extension cords in place of permanent wiring.
  • Do not remove the prongs of an electrical plug. If plug prongs are missing, loose, or bent, replace the entire plug.
  • Do not use an adapter or extension cord to defeat a standard grounding device. (e.g., Only place three-prong plugs in three-prong outlets; do not alter them to fit in a two-prong outlet.)
  • Use extension cords that are the correct size or rating for the equipment in use. The diameter of the extension cord should be the same or greater than the cord of the equipment in use.
  • Only use cords rated for outdoor use when using a cord outside.
  • Do not run cords above ceiling tiles or through walls.
  • Keep electrical cords away from areas where they may be pinched and areas where they may pose a tripping or fire hazard (e.g., doorways, walkways, under carpet, etc.).
  • Always inspect the cord prior to use to ensure the insulation isn't cut or damaged. Discard damaged cords, cords that become hot, or cords with exposed wiring.
  • Never unplug an extension cord by pulling on the cord; pull on the plug.
  • In locations where equipment be pushed against an extension cord where the cord joins the plug, use a special "angle extension cord" specifically designed for use in these instances.

Electrical Safety for Construction Sites



Electrical Safety for Construction Sites


Electrical extension cords are numerous on construction sites and become damaged because of the rough conditions in which they are used.
Inspect to ensure:
  • All extension cords are three-wire cords;
  • The ground pin is on a male plug;
  • There is no unbroken insulation on the cord;
  • End appliances (plug and receptacle) are gripped to insulation;
  • All wires are continuous and unbroken;
  • All cords are protected from damage, likely to occur when passing through a door or window;
  • Metal boxes with knockouts are not used on extension cords;
  • Plugs are dead-front (molded or screwed in place);
  • Romex (non-metallic sheathed cable) is not used as flexible cord;
  • Cords are not stapled or hung from nails;
  • Bushing is passing through holes in covers or outlet boxes.
Also, check these items:
  • Temporary lights are not supported by cords;
  • Bulb guards are used on temporary lights;
  • Electrical power tools with non-dead man switches have a magnetic restart (when injury to the operator might result if motors were to restart following power failures);
  • Provisions are made to prevent machines from automatically restarting upon restoration of power in place;
  • Outlets do not have reversed polarity;
  • Power tools are double insulated or have a ground pin;
Guard all of exposed electric of more than 50 volts so no one can come in contact (receptacles, light-bulb sockets, bare wires, load center, switches). Guard by:
  1. Using approved enclosures;
  2. Locating them in a room, vault or similar enclosure accessible only to qualified persons;
  3. Arranging suitable permanent, substantial partitions or screens so only qualified persons have access to the space within reach of live parts;
  4. Locating them on a suitable balcony or platform that is elevated and arranged to exclude unqualified persons;
  5. Elevating them 8 feet or more above the working surface.
It's important to take the time prior to beginning work at construction sites each day. The fluid nature of the activities, along with the changing environment and high potential for damage can let these items become a hazard quickly.

Electrical Shock



Electrical Shock

An electric shock is the tingling sensation or muscular contraction that a person experiences when an electrical current passes through the body.

An electric shock can severely burn or kill if the muscle contraction is severe enough to stop the heart. This muscle contraction will in many cases cause the victim to remain firmly gripped to the source of electrocution, particularly where power tools or leads are being used. The human body conducts electricity.

Even low currents may cause severe health effects. Spasms, burns, muscle paralysis, or death can result depending on the amount of the current flowing through the body, the route it takes, and the duration of exposure.


Effects of Electrical Shock
Effect DC Current (mA)
Death 120+
Ventricular Fibrillation 50-120
Paralysis of Diaphragm 20-50
Makes hands "clamp-on" 16-20
Involuntary Reflexes 4-9
Perception 1-4
 
In the event of a worker receiving an electric shock it is vital that fellow workers act swiftly to attempt to limit the damage caused to the victim. Call emergency services immediately so they are on the way prior to trying to release the victim.
Releasing a Victim From Live Electric Current 
When a person comes into contact with a live electrical circuit of sufficient voltage to cause an electric shock you first priority is to eliminate the flow of current. This typically is not just turning off the machine, equipment or tool . . . you must break the current at the source by switching off the circuit or by removing the plug from the socket in the case of a power tool.
On some occasions this may not be possible to do quickly enough. At this point your only option is to break the contact between the current and the person. This can be done by either moving the victim or moving the electrical source (wire) so they are no longer in contact. To do this safely without harm to yourself you must not be another conductor for the electric path to ground. Insulate yourself if you must move a victim away from a live contact - wear electrical or dry gloves or cover your hands with cloth and stand on dry insulating material like cardboard, wood or clothes. Ensure you have good footing and will not slip or fall when trying to move the victim. Utilize something non-conductive to release the victim or move the source from the victim. The following are some common items:
  • Professional non-conductive release hook (best option and relatively inexpensive)
  • Long piece of lumber (2x4, etc)
  • Broom Handle
  • Leather belt (cut off buckle)
  • Dry Rope
  • Blanket, clothes or other dry non-conductive materials
 
Once the victim is released from the live current check the victims breathing and heart beat. If breathing has stopped, but the victims pulse is present, commence mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. If heartbeat has stopped, commence cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). If both breathing and heartbeat have stopped, alternate between mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and CPR. Use blankets to keep the victim warm and raise the victims legs slightly above the level of the head to lessen the effects of shock.

Tuesday, 31 July 2018

LOTO - More Than A Lock - Section 1

LOTO - More Than A Lock - Section 1


Lockout/Tagout is more than just putting a yellow lock on the main electrical disconnect to a machine or part of a machine. There are 7 very important steps you must do when putting Lockout/Tagout in place:

SEVEN STEPS FOR SHUTDOWN


  • NOTIFY – Notify all affected employees that you are going to be conducting a lockout/tagout.
  • PREPARE – Before you begin, be sure you know all the types of energy involved, hazards presented by energy, and how to control the energy.
  • SHUTDOWN – Turn off machine or equipment.
  • ISOLATE - Isolate machine or equipment from its energy source(s). (For example, turn off main circuit breaker.)
  • LOCKOUT – apply your lock. Be sure that it holds the isolating device in the “off” or “safe” position.
  • RELEASE - Release stored energy. Relieve, disconnect, restrain, block, or otherwise ensure, that all energy sources – electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, compressed, etc. – are de-energized.
  • VERIFY – Try the on-off switch or other controls to be sure the machine won’t start. Return the switch to the “off” position.

YOUR LOCKOUT IS COMPLETE