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Showing posts with label Fire Safety. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Fire Safety. Show all posts

Thursday, 25 July 2019

Fire Prevention - A Study Hand Book

Fire Prevention  - A Study Hand Book


Fire is an chemical reaction involving rapid oxidation of combustible  / Flammable materials. Producing intense heat, Smoke and Light.

 Types of Fire:

Class A Fire : This types of fire involves ordinary soild combustible materials like wood, paper and cotton etc., These materials are organic in nature.

This type of fire is most common as these materials are widely used. this is known as class A fire.


Class B Fire : This type of fire involves solvents, varnishes and petroleum products. This is known as class B fire. 


Class C Fire : This type of fire involves gases or liquified gases like LPG, Methane, Ethane, Propane and Acetylene etc., This is known as class C fire.  

Class D Fire : This type of fire involves combustible metals like magnesium, titanium, sodium, zinc, aluminum and their alloys. This is known as class D fire. 

Note: After disconnecting electrical power supply, All electrical installations / equipment's and accessories depending upon the type of combustible materials, it will be classified as class A or class B fire.


Fire Extinguishers : 

The types of fire extinguisher is depending upon the types of fire.

1. Water type fire Extinguisher
2. Foam type extinguisher
3. DCP type extinguisher
4.CO2 type extinguisher

Water type fire Extinguisher : 

Water is the extinguishing media for this extinguisher. Fire is extinguished by cooling method. This is suitable for Class A fire.

Foam type fire extinguisher :

Foam is the extinguishing media for this extinguisher. Fire is extinguished by both blanketing and clothing methods. This is suitable for class B fire or flammable liquids.

DCP type fire extinguisher :

Dry chemical powder is the extinguishing media for this extinguisher. Fire is extinguished by blanketing or smothering method. It is suitable for almost any class of fire.

CO2 - Type Fire Extinguisher : 

Co2 - gas is the extinguishing media. Fire is extinguished by cutting oxygen with the helps of co2 gas. this is suitable for electrical fire and oil fire.

The Causes of Fire :

1. Smoking
2. Welding/Cutting without proper fire prevention measures.
3. Improper storing flammable liquids and gases.
4. Using defective electrical equipment's.
5. Keeping oil, grease or any flammable materials nearby electrical installations.
6. Unattended or wrongly using of the heaters.

Preventive Methods :

House Keeping :

1. The work place equipment's and other accessories should be neat and tidy.
2. Removing the wastes of flammable materials.
3. Keep the flammable materials in their places only.
4. Don't block the access for the fire extinguisher point.
5. Don't keep any other materials near extinguishers.

Flammable Liquids : 

1. Gas cylinders should be kept in straight position.
2. Keep away the flammable liquids from hot place.
3. For taking the flammable liquids from one place to other place; Use container in tray.
4. We can avoid the leakage by keeping the containers in tray.
5. While pouring the liquids, use hand pumps, don't pour the liquids directly i.e. without pump.


Precautions while welding / Cutting : 

1. Remove all combustible / flammable materials nearby the welding area, if removal of materials is not possible, use fire blanket to cover it.
2. Always keep good serviceable fire extinguisher near the welding area.
3. Avoid welding / Cutting activities without hot work permit.
4. Check the electrical wire and hose.
5. Switch off the welding / Cutting machine after end of the work of  rest times. 

Electrical Equipment's :

1. Don't overload the electrical circuit.
2. Avoid using electrical equipment's with temporary wire joints.
3. Authorized person's only should be allowed for repairing the electrical equipment's / Appliances.

Fire Protection :

1. Fire extinguisher should be placed in visible and accessible manner.
2. Don't play with fire extinguisher by operating it.
3. Maintain the extinguisher in well manner.


1. Extinguishing the fire in initial stage and shout 'Fire 'Fire to alert the persons nearby.
2. Don't use the lift.
3. Don't run in hurry and move fast.
4. Inform to the fire brigade.
5. The 'Fire Exit' should be opened always and signage need to be displayed to identify it.
6. Evacuate the place and assemble in the assembly point.
7. Don't leave the assembly point before the announcements by the authority concerned.

Tuesday, 23 October 2018

Fire Extinguishers

Fire Extinguishers

One of the quickest ways to lose a job is allow a fire to start. Sometimes fires do start and it then becomes a matter of putting the fire out as soon as possible. The best way is to use a fire extinguisher.

Care and Use
  • Be sure the fire extinguishers are charged, strategically located and ready for use.
  • Everyone has a responsibility to check to see that fire extinguishers and fire hoses (as well as other dispensing components) are not blocked.
Common Types of Extinguishers
  • Class A Fires: Rubbish, paper, scrap, scrap lumber. Use soda acid and pressurized extinguishers or water through use of a hose or pump type water can.
  • Class B Fires: Flammable liquids, oil, grease. Use carbon dioxide, dry chemical or foam extinguishers. Do not use water on these types of fires.
  • Class C Fires: Electrical in nature. Use carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguisher. Do not use foam or water composition extinguishers.

The person responsible to insure fire extinguishers are charged, strategically located and ready for use is Employer.

Our exposure is generally to Class _____ fires. We have Class _____ fire extinguishers available.
Remember: The quickest way to put out a fire may not always be the best way.

Monday, 22 October 2018

Fire Protection and Control

Fire Protection and Control

Most fires are a result of inattention to the job site operations and surrounding conditions. This lack of attention or protection can result in the loss of life and property. All fires can be easily extinguished if caught soon enough and the proper extinguishing tools are handy.

Steps to Remember When a Fire Starts:
  • Sound an alarm—yell if necessary.
  • Warn those near the fire.
  • If possible and the fire is small, try to extinguish it.
  • Call the Fire Department if the fire can’t be easily and quickly extinguished.
  • Evacuate the area if the fire can’t be quickly extinguished.
  • Direct the Fire Department to the area of the fire.
  • Stand by to help, but only if asked by a Fire Department official.

Be Sure to Know the Following:
  • The Fire Department phone number.
  • Be sure you know the location of the nearest cross street to give the Fire Department directions.
  • Where the fire extinguishers are and how to use them.
  • How to evacuate the work area.

Steps to Prevent Fires
  • Regularly inspect all fire extinguishers.
  • Keep the work area free of debris and trash.
  • Designate high risk areas as “no smoking” areas. Enforce no smoking rules.
  • Store flammable fuels and materials only in approved safety containers.
  • Check temporary wiring and electrical tools for defects.

The emergency numbers and job site location (including nearest cross streets) are posted where on the job?
If welding equipment is on the job, when is it regularly inspected?
Remember: Knowing how to recognize, react to, or eliminate fire hazards can greatly decrease the chances of being exposed to a fire.

Friday, 17 August 2018

Fire extinguishers

Fire extinguishers

Fire extinguishers are made to put out only small, confined fires. Anything larger or that has spread from its original location must be handled by the fire department.

Common classes of fire extinguishers are:
  • Class ABC (all fires except flammable metals)
  • Class BC (flammable liquids and electrical fires)
  • Class AB (combustibles and flammable liquids—do not use on electrical fires)

Hazards to watch for:

  • The fire is too large to handle with one fire extinguisher.
  • Your exiting route is blocked.
  • You do not have the right type of extinguisher for the fire type.

Safe procedures:

Here’s what you do.Before using an extinguisher, make sure:

  •  You are properly trained in the use of the extinguisher.
  • You are confident you can put the fire out with one3. Your escape path is not threatened.
  • The extinguisher matches the fire type.
  • Alarm has been sounded (either you have done this or you’ve told another person).
  • Smoke and noxious fumes are not accumulating.
  • Fire is small and confined.
  • Building is being evacuated.

How to use a fire extinguisher (PASS) method:-

  • P–Pull the pin that keeps the handle from being pressed (an initial twist will easily break the plastic retainer)
  • A–Aim at the base of the fire (where the fuel and the fire meet)
  • S–Squeeze the handle
  • S–Sweep back and forth at the base of the fire
Do not stop until the fire is completely out. After the fire appears to be out, watch carefully, it may re-ignite. If you can’t put it out with one extinguisher, evacuate and let the fire department take over.

Thursday, 16 August 2018

Fire Extinguisher Basics

Fire Extinguisher Basics

To avoid putting workers in danger, fire extinguishers should be located throughout the workplace and readily accessible in the event of a fire. You can usually find them in hallways, meeting rooms, kitchens, mechanical /electrical rooms, and near exit doors.

Employer Responsibility:
  • Providing portable fire extinguishers and mounting, locating, and identifying them so that they are readily accessible to employees without subjecting the employees to possible injury.
  • Providing the correct type of fire extinguisher for the workplace. This is often times a multi-purpose fire extinguisher.
  • Assuring that portable fire extinguishers are maintained, fully charged, operate properly, and are kept in designated places at all times, except during use.
Your Responsibility:
  • Knowing where the fire extinguisher’s are located at your place of work.
  • Knowing how to properly use a fire extinguisher. Just remember PASS:
    P: Pull the pin
    A: Aim at the base of the fire
    S: Squeeze the lever
    S: Sweep sided to side.

Fire Extinguisher Accessibility

Fire Extinguisher Accessibility

To avoid putting workers in danger, fire extinguishers should be located throughout the workplace and readily accessible in the event of a fire. You can usually find them in hallways, laundry rooms, meeting rooms, kitchens, mechanical or electrical rooms, near exit doors, and elevators. The portable fire extinguishers must be selected and positioned based on the potential type (and size) of fire that can occur.

The distance between fire extinguishers in the work place depends on the type of materials at risk of igniting. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has very detailed requirements about location and placement of fire extinguishers, based on the type of building  area, and type of combustible materials stored. Basically, if your building (or work area) has:
  • Class A combustible materials (paper, wood, plastic, etc.) 
    • Have a 2-A extinguisher for every 3,000 square feet, and locate it no further than 100 feet away.
  • Class B combustible materials (paints, oils, gasoline, etc.)
    •  All employees need access to an extinguisher within 50 feet travel distance.
    • Class C extinguishers (a multi-purpose extinguisher)
    •  Are required where electrical equipment is used, and the size and location spacing is based on the Class A or B hazard that is present.
  • Class D combustibles (metal powders, flakes, shavings, or similarly sized materials)
    • Must have a portable fire extinguisher not more than 75 feet from the hazard.
  • Class K combustibles (cooking materials; vegetable/animal oils and fats)
    • Must have extinguishers installed at a maximum travel distance of 30 feet.
On construction sites: 

OSHA requires one or more fire extinguishers (rated not less than 2A) be provided on each floor. At least one fire extinguisher is to be located adjacent to the stairway. A fire extinguisher (rated not less than 10B) is to be provided within 50 feet of where 5+ gallons of flammable or combustible liquids or gases are being used. Other common locations would be storage boxes or trailers, gang boxes, mobile equipment like aerial lifts and forklifts as well as roof tops during roofing work.

Both Industry and Construction regulations require that an extinguisher be readily available to all hot work operations such as welding, cutting, soldering, brazing, and electrical hot work operations. The extinguisher should be within arms reach, as fire doubles in size very quickly. Roofing tar kettles require a fire extinguisher to be present, and also where propane torches are in use. Electrical work where plastic conduit or pipe is being formed or bent should also have a fire extinguisher present as a best practice due to the high heat possible.

Wednesday, 15 August 2018

Fire Extinguisher Inspections & Testing

Fire Extinguisher Inspections & Testing

Inspection Certification

Fire extinguishers must be certified annually in accordance with local, state, and national codes and regulations. This is a thorough examination by a licensed Fire Extinguisher Inspector. The certification process requires inspectors to verify the extinguisher is fully pressurized, free from damage, and weighed appropriately. Annual inspections also require a pull test on the pin and seal replacement—this must be verified with a dated inspection tag. If the extinguisher fails to meet these requirements, it must be replaced.

Fire Extinguisher Testing

The National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA) recommends that extinguishers should be tested every six years or twelve years, depending on the type of extinguisher.

6 Year Maintenance: Extinguishers that store a pressurized agent must have its contents removed and refilled every 6 years. 6 year maintenance requires thorough inspection of the inside and outside and must be performed exactly 72 months after the manufacturing date.

12 Year Maintenance: Extinguishers which store specialized chemicals such as Halon or dry chemicals must undergo “hydrostatic” tests every 12 years. This standard method of testing is conducted underwater where the cylinders are subjected to pressures that exceed their ratings.

Extinguishers that fail the test are destroyed, while the rest are reassembled and put back into service.
Monthly Inspections are required to ensure that all extinguishers are ready for use. They are performed by trained, competent individuals within the company, many times the Safety Professionals, or another like-minded individual.

A monthly inspection includes:
  • Confirming the extinguisher is visible, unobstructed, and in its designated location.
  • Verifying the pull pin is intact and the tamper seal is unbroken.
  • Examining the extinguisher for obvious physical damage, corrosion, leakage, or severe denting.
  • Tapping the pressure gauge to confirm the gauge and indicator is in the operable range/position.
  • Turning the extinguisher upside down and pounding it on the side to loosen the powder inside.
  • Completely removing the hose from the unit to check for blockages.
  • While the hose is off, inspecting the valve assembly for powder caking or buildup.
  • Making sure the operating instructions on the nameplate are legible and facing outward.
  • Checking the service tag to ensure it is legible and the punched date is within the last 12 months.
  • Initialing and dating the back of the tag to show the inspection was completed.

Sunday, 29 July 2018

Workplace Fire Safety and Emergency Response

Workplace Fire Safety Training Emergency Response

Workplace Fire Safety

Fire safety training at work is everyone’s business. Each year , there are many workplace fires reporting. Of these most of incident many have injury and end in death. Fortunately, most workplace fires can be prevented — only 15 percent of them are a result of circumstances outside of human control.

The key is training, knowledge, and preventative measures. It’s important that businesses establish and implement fire safety programs and that all employees are involved. Fire safety training kits should cover all vital elements such as hazard recognition, prevention, and response. Use these fire safety basics to get you started.

Hazard Recognition and Prevention

First of all in order to eliminate fire hazards, you have to know what to look for. Take the time to perform a workplace hazard assessment where you can search for and document known hazards. Once hazards have been identified, you’ll then be able to either control them if they are unavoidable or eliminate them altogether. Consider the following:

  • Always practice good housekeeping. Keep work areas free of clutter and combustible waste.
  • Make sure any heat-producing equipment (including office equipment like copiers or coffee makers) are kept away from materials that could burn.
  • Most of workplace fires are electrical. Ensure electrical cords are in good condition. Remove equipment from service if wires are found exposed or damaged until they have been repaired or replaced.
  • Check that power outlets are not overloaded and that outlets and extension cords are capable of handling the voltage of connected equipment.
  • Be on the lookout for equipment that overheats or gives off a burning odor.
  • When plugging equipment into an outlet, the plug should correspond with the outlet; that is to say, do not plug a two-prong plug into a three-slot outlet.
  • Store flammable work materials and chemicals in a safe location away from any ignition sources.
  • Make sure there are unobstructed emergency exits and escape routes. Routes and evacuation instructions should be posted in locations visible to employees on every floor.
  • Inspect fire response equipment regularly, including smoke detectors, fire alarms, and fire extinguishers. Items not in working order need to be replaced right away.
  • Fire extinguishers must be current on their inspections. Tags will indicate the most recent inspection.
  • Communicate to all employees the hazards of smoking on site. Designate smoking areas outside and away from building entrances.
  • Part of a preventative strategy includes written and practiced evacuation procedures. Your business should conduct regular fire drills where alarm recognition, safe evacuation, designated meeting location, and roll calls are performed. Use drills as an opportunity to identify flaws in your program and make any necessary changes.

Fire Response

  • If you see a fire break out, immediately sound the nearest alarm to alert other employees in the building and then determine your next step.
  • If the fire is small and controllable and you are trained in the use of a fire extinguisher, you may attempt to extinguish the fire. Be sure to leave yourself a clear escape route and know how to recognize when the fire grows out of your control. Instruct a nearby employee to dial 911 if your alarm system is not equipped to automatically communicate with local emergency responders.
  • If it’s clear the fire cannot be controlled by a fire extinguisher, evacuate immediately. Do not wait around or attempt to manage the fire on your own. Follow established evacuation procedures and assist fellow employees along the way.

Tips to Elevate Safety During Fire Response

Choose the correct fire extinguisher for the job. Certain fire extinguishers are designed to extinguish particular types of fires. For example, an extinguisher designed to put out grease fires is not effective against fires caused by ordinary combustibles such as paper and cardboard.

While nothing is an equal substitute for training on and familiarization with the use of fire extinguishers, the basics can be remembered with one simple acronym: PASS.

  • P: Pull the pin
  • A: Aim the nozzle at the base of the fire where the source is, not at the flames themselves
  • S: Squeeze the handle
  • S: Sweep the nozzle back and forth from left to right until the fire has been extinguished

When evacuating the building, close doors behind you. This will help limit the spread of fire and smoke throughout the building.

  • Never Use an Elevator During a Fire
  • Especially relevant for three reasons:
  • Depending on the severity of the fire, electrical damage may shut elevators down mid-transit
  • Elevator shafts may fill up with smoke
  • Emergency responders and firefighters may need access to the elevators to address fires on upper levels.

Furthermore, all employees should be trained in basic first aid skills. After evacuation, attend to any employees who may have been injured either by the flames or smoke inhalation while you wait for emergency responders.

Fire Extinguishers

PASS: When using a fire extinguisher, follow this common acronym to maximize its effectiveness.

  • Pull the pin.
  • Aim at the base of the fire (often, users are tempted to spray the fire itself instead of its fuel source).
  • Squeeze the handle.
  • Sweep from side to side.

Fire extinguishers are composed of a variety of materials depending on the type of fire they are designed to eliminate. All extinguishers will contain contents under high pressure.

  • Water: Water-type extinguishers contain water under air pressure. They are not always the most desirable option, such as in the event of an electrical fire where water would escalate the situation. The cylinder of the extinguisher is often recognizable by being silver in color.
  • Dry Chemicals: These types of extinguishers contain dry chemicals, ordinarily a bicarbonate derivative (such as sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), in foam or powder form. The purpose is to smother the fire source with a chemical that breaks down into carbon dioxide. CO2 removes and/or displaces oxygen, which is the active fuel behind a fire.  Dry chemical extinguishers are generally red in color and have a pressure gauge at the top near the lever.
  • Carbon Dioxide: Highly-pressurized carbon dioxide. Under such high pressure, it is released at a very low temperature, addressing the fire by not only displacing the oxygen but freezing temperatures. You may typically recognize a CO2 extinguisher by a horn at the end of the hose and a lack of pressure gauge. Below is a table which will describe the uses for which individually-rated fire extinguishers are designed. Fire extinguishers are required by law to display clear rating labels on the cylinder as well as inspection tags which must reflect a maintenance inspection date on an annual (at minimum) basis.

Not all fire extinguishers are manufactured exactly alike. Variations may include operating instructions or distance the user should stand from the fire when dispersing contents. Required cylinder labeling will inform you of the specifics.

First Aid for Burns

Burns are common injuries at the workplace daily. Several different things can cause burns, and can result in varying levels of injury. Identifying the type and severity of the burn is the first step to administering first aid. When treating a burn, follow these steps:

  • Assess the Situation
  • Determine the cause of the injury and eliminate any hazards that may affect you or the victim
  • Put on any necessary PPE, such as latex gloves for protection from bloodborne pathogens
  • If the victim isn’t in any danger, don’t move them
  • Treat life-threatening situations first, such as severe bleeding, cardiac arrest, or if the victim has stopped breathing
  • Don’t become a victim yourself; leave rescue to trained personnel
  • Call for Help: If you are alone, treat any life threatening injuries first, and then go for help. If you are not alone, send someone for help immediately.

Three Classifications of Burns

  • 1st Degree: 1st Degree burns are identified by redness of skin and are generally uncomfortable. 1st Degree burns are generally caused by overexposure to the sun, scalding by moderately hot water, or touching hot material.
  • 2nd Degree: 2nd Degree burns are generally identified by blistering and extreme redness of skin.
  • 3rd Degree: 3rd Degree burns may cause charring, whiteness, and permanent discoloration of skin. 3rd Degree burns can be considered life threatening.

Burns Due to Fire

Fires generally cause second and third degree burns. Second degree burns show redness, swelling, and blistering. Third degree burns have a white or charred appearance. Treat 2nd and 3rd degree burns as follows:

  • Cover all burned skin with a dry, sterile dressing or cloth
  • Elevate the burned arm or leg above the heart to reduce pain
  • Don’t attempt to remove any clothing or jewelry that may be melted to the skin
  • Don’t attempt to “pull apart” fingers that may be fused together
  • Seek immediate Emergency Medical attention

Burns Due to Electricity

  • Contact with electricity usually results in second and third degree burns. If someone has been burned by electricity, take the following steps:
  • Make sure that all electrical current has been turned off
  • Check for breathing and do CPR if necessary
  • Cover all burned skin with a dry, sterile dressing or cloth
  • Elevate the burned limb above the level of the heart to reduce pain and relieve shock

Burns Due to Chemicals

  • Chemical burns often cause damage long after the chemical has made contact with the skin.
  • If the victim’s eyes have been splashed with a chemical, flush the eyes with water until medical personnel arrive.
  • Read the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for proper first aid treatment, and when appropriate, rinse with water.
  • If appropriate, seek Emergency Medical attention (always take the Safety Data Sheet and chemical with you).

In conclusion, serious burns of any type cause nerve damage that disables the healing process. To help reduce future complications, always take extra care to avoid contaminating a burn that could result in an infection. Always remember, fires are nearly always avoidable. Knowledge, training, and a solid fire safety training topics can save you and your company from injuries, death, and property damage.

Monday, 9 July 2018



When considering fire sprinkler design for any building, it's important to follow the following steps:

1. Determine the fire hazard level in the building

Every building should be classified for fire risk under the following categories: light hazard, ordinary hazard group 1, ordinary hazard group 2, extra hazard group 1, or extra hazard group 2. Factors involved in classifying a building's hazard level include the material used in construction, the occupancy level, the materials stored in the building, the processes performed in the building (and whether these processes include flammable liquids), ceiling heights, ease of egress, and the amount of floors and rooms.

2. Determine the design area and design density

The design area is a theoretical space within the building that's designated as the worst possible place where a fire can break out. Once determined as the highest risk area in the building, this area's risk level is usually applied to the entire building. Once that's done, determine the amount of water per square meter would be needed to put a fire out in the design area. The calculations should be done in liters of water per minute. This will help you determine the type of sprinkler heads, fire sprinkler design, and amount of water pressure you'll need.

3. Determine which fire sprinkler design will best meet your needs

You'll need to find a fire sprinkler design that can deliver the amount of water per square foot required to put out a fire in your design area. Doing this entails complex calculations that account for the initial water pressure, as well as reductions or elevations to it due to friction in the pipes, momentum from the speed the water travels, and the difference in elevation between the water pump and the sprinkler heads. Nowadays, these calculations are often performed by computer software-although fire sprinkler installation professionals are still required to learn to do them by hand as part of their when designing your fire sprinkler system, you have a lot of choices. Here are a few of the more common ones. The hazard levels they are appropriate for can vary, depending on the height and size of the building and other factors that can affect water pressure, but this list includes some examples of building types these fire sprinkler designs are generally appropriate for.

Control Mode Sprinklers are the standard fire sprinkler design. These stop a fire from spreading by dumping water directly on the fire when it starts, lowering its core temperature to the point where the fire can no longer sustain its heat. This fire sprinkler design also "pre-wets" flammable material adjacent to the fire.

Suppression Sprinklers are specially suited to work quickly and handle fast-growing and challenging fires. Instead of pre-wetting the area as the control mode fire sprinkler design does, the suppression sprinklers release a deluge of water directly on the core of the fire-lowering the temperature quickly and efficiently. This fire sprinkler design is often preferred in buildings containing highly flammable materials, as they quickly stop an already-severe fire from growing.

Fast-Response Sprinklers work more quickly than other designs. In some areas, this is the required fire sprinkler design for light-hazard occupancies.

Water Mist Sprinklers are often used on offshore oil drilling rigs and ships, as well as in areas where water damage is a special concern. Unlike many fire sprinkler designs which extinguish solely by removing the heat from a fire, the water mist fire sprinkler design attacks a fire on two fronts: its warmth and its oxygen supply. It does not douse the area, which is better for rooms containing water-sensitive equipment.
Instead of spraying water, water mist sprinklers spray high-pressure mist, which is converted to steam when it encounters the heat from the fire. When converting to steam, the mist water droplets deplete the oxygen supply in the room, effectively suffocating the fire. In addition, the water mist is a powerful cooling agent and blocks the fire's radiant heat, dropping its temperature and keeping it from spreading.
Residential sprinklers are specially designed to protect people in the room of origin from being injured by a fire. This fire sprinkler design is often the best choice for residential developers and landlords.

Decorator Sprinklers sometimes called concealed sprinklers, can be designed to blend in with the ceiling so as not to be visible. This fire sprinkler design can come in custom colors, and the sprinkler head is typically recessed. A cap is placed over the recess and colored to match the ceiling. The glue used to attach it will dissolve in case of a fire, dropping off and exposing the sprinkler head. These are often the fire sprinkler design of choice in homes.

Extended Coverage Sprinklers are designed so that each sprinkler head covers a wide area-and limits the amount of sprinkler heads needed to protect a building. This fire sprinkler design is also useful in areas with lots of flammable material, as the wide footprint for each sprinkler head will "pre-wet" surrounding materials in case of a fire. These can be installed with a residential, quick-response, or standard design.

Low-Pressure Sprinklers are designed to handle fire protection needs in tall buildings where water pressure may be reduced in the upper floors. This fire sprinkler design is often used in skyscrapers and tall tenement buildings. Using this fire sprinkler design can be more cost-effective than other designs. It will also reduce pipe size and reduce the need for a fire pump.

Early Suppression Fast Response (ESFR) Sprinklers are designed to control fires that start in storage areas piled high with flammable materials. They are typically used in high-risk storage facilities.

Wet-Pipe or Dry-Pipe are two versions of fire sprinkler design you can install. With a wet-pipe system, the water is constantly running through the pipes. This is the most common type of system, and is most typically found in residential buildings that are constantly heated. With a dry-pipe fire sprinkler design, the pipes are filled with compressed air, and hooked up to the water source via a pump or valve. When a sprinkler head is activated, the valve is tripped and water floods the pipes. This system is more difficult to maintain than a wet-pipe fire sprinkler design, but it is ideal for buildings that are not constantly heated, as they protect pipes from bursting.

Fire Protection

Fire Protection

Don't get burned! Protection is the name of the game. We need to protect ourselves, co-workers tools and equipment, storage trailers, and the location where we work and live in case of fire.

Protection begins with planning who is going to call the fire department should there be a fire. Is the fire department's emergency phone number posted next to the telephone? Are there fire extinguishers available in our work areas? Is there one in the job truck? Is there a full extinguisher in the job office trailer? Do you have extinguishers and smoke alarms at home?
Are flammable liquids stored in approved containers? When using a cutting torch take steps to make sure the surrounding areas will not catch fire by removing all combustible materials.
What about housekeeping? Does the job clean up all work areas on a daily basis, or do you wait until the areas are cluttered with all kinds of combustible material?
Are 'No Smoking' areas posted so all workers know not to -smoke in areas where flammable liquids or containers are stored?
Part of your protection plan should be to know where all fire exits are! Do you know the one closest to your work area? Do you have a back-up exit in case the first one is blocked? Do you have an escape plan at home?
Smoke alarms on the job and at home should be tested monthly. Replace batteries as per the recommended period from manufacture.
Remember, protection starts with you. You must plan what to do, -who to call and where to go should a fire break out. You must also do your part by storing flammables properly and smoking only in safe areas.
It doesn't take much f or a small fire to become a killer. With proper training and knowledge you can protect yourself, your workplace and your home.

Fire Prevention - Construction Site

Fire Prevention - Construction Site
Construction Site Fire

This may sound like a contradiction, but the problem with fire prevention on a construction site is the absence of a problem. Fires do not occur with frequency or regularity and therefore workers are not particularly concerned about them. Another word for this is complacency, an environment in which danger grows and thrives. It is extremely difficult to motivate some one to take an active interest in fire prevention when the person has never been involved in a serious fire and when they face other, imminent hazards on a daily basis. This leads to the common misconception that fire prevention is someone else's problem.

Almost every construction worker has at one time or another seen someone injured by a fall or being struck by an object. Very few have seen a person burned in a fire, or seen valuable property and months of work reduced to smoke and ashes.

We need to be reminded regularly of the ever-present danger of fire. We need to know the different types of fires and extinguishers. Briefly, electrical or flammable liquid fires require an extinguisher rated BC. Use a water extinguisher only for Class A fires (wood, paper etc.).
A dry chemical extinguisher rated ABC is for all classes of fire. Aim at the base of the fire and move the nozzle from side to side in a sweeping motion. If the fire continues, evacuate everyone from the area and call the fire department.
Observe all 'NO SMOKING' signs, especially near flammables. Make sure the area is free from all combustibles when burning or welding. Place all construction debris in the proper area for disposal . Know where fire extinguishers are located.
A fire today could mean loss of life, loss of a job, personal injury or property damage. Are you doing your part to prevent one? Check both your job and your home for fire hazards.

Procedure / Statutory requirement for Discard of Fire Extinguisher

Procedure / Statutory requirement for Discard of Fire Extinguisher

"Guideline is given in IS 2190. Same is attached herewith for your reference."


The rejected fire extinguishers should be cut centrally across the body and made unusable before disposal so as to prohibit their subsequent use. The date of rejection and the mode disposal should be recorded in the register fire extinguisher.

We need to consider the life of extinguishers also for discarding the same from service.

Below info is for your reference.
Refilling and Maintenance of Fire Extinguisher
As per IS 2190
Type Of Fire Extinguisher
Life of Fire
Hydraulic Pressure Test
Water Type- stored Pressure
10 Yrs
2 Yrs
3 yrs

Mechanical Foam Type-Stored Pressure
10 Yrs
2 Yrs
3 yrs

BC & ABC Type
10 Yrs
3 yrs
3 yrs

Water Type -Gas Cartridge-9 litre
10 Yrs
3 yrs
3 yrs

Mechanical Foam Type--Gas Cartridge-9 litre
10 Yrs
5 yrs
3 yrs

Water Type -Gas Cartridge-50 litre
10 Yrs
5 yrs
3 yrs

Mechanical Foam Type--Gas Cartridge-50 litre
10 Yrs
5 yrs
3 yrs

Carbon Dioxide type-Portable & trolley Mounted
15 Yrs
5 yrs
5 yrs

BC & ABC Type -Trolley Mounted
10 Yrs
5 yrs
3 yrs

DCP for Metal Fires
10 Yrs
5 yrs
3 yrs

Clean Agents
10 Yrs
5 yrs
3 yrs

Life of extinguishers shall be considered from date of manufacture of extinguishers.
In case of failure in hydraulic pressure testing, extinguisher shall be rejected immediately before the life time given above.

As per the IS 2190, Annex D & E, under clauses 4.6.1, 12.3, 12.2.1 & 12.2.2; refilling & HPT (Hydraulic Pressure Testing) for fire extinguishers as below;
Refilling & HPT schedule/frequency
Sr. No.
Water type-stored Pressure
Once in 2 years
Mechanical Foam
Once in 2 years
Once in 3 years
Water type-Co2 cartridge
Once in 5 years
Once in 3 years
Once in 5 years
Every time when cylinder sent for refilling
DCP-for metal fire
Once in 5 years
Once in 3 years
Once in 3 years
Every time when cylinder sent for refilling
DCP- cartridge
Once in 5 years
Once in 3 years


In corrosive environments, it is desirable to have the discharge test carried out at half the frequency mentioned.
Every extinguisher installed in premises shall be hydraulically pressure tested as per the schedule mentioned above.
There shall not be any leakage or visible distortion. Extinguishers which fails in this requirement shall be replaced.
The hydraulic pressure testing should be carried out such that at least one-third (1/3) of the extinguishers installed in a premises are tested as per Annex E every
Discharge Test: All extinguishers installed in a premises irrespective of being used in a live fire condition shall be subjected to an operational test as per the frequency mentioned above. The operation test should be carried out in such a frequency, keeping in view the frequency given in Annex D, so that at least 50% of the fire extinguishers installed in premises are subjected to discharge test. If more than 10% of extinguishers, subjected to discharge test fail during the testing, then all the extinguishers installed in the premises shall be subjected to the discharge test
Gas Cartridge: If there is loss of more than 10% of original mass, these should be sent for re-charging & replaced with fresh charge.
Spares: It is important that a minimum of 10% of the number of various types of extinguishers on charge) replacement charges/refills should always be available in stock so that discharged extinguishers can be re-charged/replaced.
Maintenance of Fire Extinguishers: Basic Points

1. Examination for obvious physical damage, corrosion, leakage, or clogged nozzle
2. Examine the inside surface of the cylinder as well as the surface of the containers for the condition of plating, for any rust formation, etc
3. Examine valve assembly, discharge hose, nozzle, strainer, vent holes, siphon tube and clean 
4. Examine sealing washers, siphon tube and hose ( if fitted ), and replace washers, if necessary
5. Clean vent holes
6. Ensure all joints are fully tightened and the nozzle vent holes are free of dust/dirt.
7. Pressure gauge reading or indicator in the parable range or position
8. Ensure that there is no residual pressure in any hose and/or nozzle assembly, will unscrew the cap or valve assembly slowly for two or three turns only, to allow any residual pressure to escape via the vent holes.
9. All sealing components should be cleaned and properly lubricated
10. Fullness determined by weighing or lifting.
11. Open out the cartridge type extinguishers and will ensure cartridge weight (should not be less than 10 to 15% of total weight)
12. Ensure for correct labelling, replace if required
13. Ensure all joints are fully tightened. Etc.