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Showing posts with label Incident Reporting. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Incident Reporting. Show all posts

Thursday, 23 April 2020

Accident/Incident/Near Miss Investigation

Topic : Incident Reporting 
One of the best ways to avoid further accidents is to understands how an accident occurred and how to avoid that type of accident in the future. The accident investigation is a tool. The goal is not to lay blame.

The goal in an accident investigation is to:
  • Satisfy legal/ organization requirements
  • Rethink the safety hazard.
  • Introduce ways to prevent a re-occurrence
  • Establish training needs.

An accident, a near miss and an incident should all be investigated.
  • Accident investigations are a tool for uncovering hazards that either were missed earlier or require new controls (policies, procedures or personal protective equipment).
  • Near-miss reporting and investigation identify and control safety or health hazards before they cause a more serious incident.
  • Incident investigations should focus on prevention.

ACCIDENT:- An undesired event or sequence of events causing injury, ill-health or property damage.

NEAR MISS:- Near misses describe incidents where, given a slight shift in time or distance, injury, ill-health or damage easily could have occurred, but didn’t this round.

INCIDENT :- An incident is an unplanned, undesired event that hinders completion of a task and may cause injury or other damage.


  • Conduct an investigation as soon as possible following the event to gather all the necessary facts, determine the true causes of the event, and develop recommendations to prevent a recurrence.
  • Get there as quickly as possible.
  • Ensure area is safe to enter.
  • Make sure injured person has first-aid or medical attention required.
  • Look for witnesses.
  • Record the scene with photos (ideally date and time printed) or sketches.
  • Safeguard any evidence.
  • Establish what happened.

Equipment that may come in handy:
  • Pens and notebook
  • Measuring tape
  • Specimen containers
  • Camera
  • Tape recorder and cassettes
  • Copies of accident report forms, checklists
  • Telephone numbers
  • Personal protective equipment.


The investigation should answer six questions:
  • Who?
  • What?
  • When?
  • Where?
  • Why?
  • How?


Interview all people involved. Look for all the causes. Do not fall into the trap of blaming the employee or volunteer, even if the person admits causing the event. Investigate the procedures, supervisor's directives, training, machinery, weather, you get the idea. The organization's accident, incident and near-miss reporting forms will give guidance.


Properly document all accident investigations using the organization's approved investigation form. The form should make it simple to remember what questions to ask, be easy to understand and complete, and be filed and retained in chronological order.

Protect Privacy

Investigation reports are not to be released to anyone without authorization.

Wednesday, 22 April 2020

Injury Reporting

Topic : Incident Reporting

Injury Reporting

Why Report ALL Injuries?

The most important reason to report all injuries is to allow the company to arrange for prompt medical treatment. Proper medical care will reduce the possibility of a minor injury becoming worse.

Accidents must be investigated, and their causes found, to prevent the same injuries from happening again to someone else. You may feel that a little cut on the finger is not worth bothering someone about. But remember, an infection that results in an amputation can start from a small untreated cut.

The cable that breaks can start from just a few broken strands. There is no such thing as an unimportant injury or accident!

The immediate result of an accident may be classified as minor, serious, or major, but they are all accidents. The fact that the accident was ‘minor’ this time may have been pure luck. Next time the same type of incident occurs, the odds may be different and the result could be a major injury – even a fatality.

Why Report Near Misses?

There are also accidents occurring every day that do not cause injury. These accidents are called a “near miss” or near accident. Experience tells us that for every serious accident, there are a greater number of minor accidents and near misses. Every time that we ignore a minor accident or near miss, we are increasing the odds that a serious accident will occur. Just the act of reporting a near miss increases safety awareness for you and your coworkers.

Reporting Guidelines

All incidents and accidents to your immediate Supervisor, and Safety Department, as soon as possible. It is critical that all injuries and accidents, including near misses, be reported so that they can be investigated and the causes determined and eliminated. This will help prevent additional injuries from occurring to our most valuable resource – YOU!

Tuesday, 21 April 2020

What Does An Accident Cost?

Topic : Incident Reporting 

What Does An Accident Cost?

Every accident has something in common: It costs everyone involved something. There are direct and indirect costs, both to the employee who was injured and the employer who eventually will pay for the accident. The costs are more than dollars.

Accident Direct & Indirect Cost
Employee Direct Costs
  • Lost regular wages and overtime
Employee Indirect Costs
  • Mental anguish, physical pain and suffering
  • Decreased active participation with their family and friends (It's tough to be at a ball game when laying up in a hospital bed)
  • Inability to be productive on or off the job
Employer Direct Costs
  • Workers’ Compensation claim
  • Medical bills
  • Associated legal and possible increased insurance costs
  • Uninsured property damage costs
Employer Indirect Costs
  • Loss of valuable employee with a result of lost efficiency on the job
  • Managerial and clerical time expended to handle injury claims
  • Time loss wages paid with no work performed
  • Hiring and training replacement
  • Damaged or destroyed equipment, materials or tools
The indirect (or hidden) cost in an accident is between three and ten times the actual cost of the claim. But it is not the costs, direct or indirect, that totals the most. More often than not it is the loss of a valuable co-worker or member of a family that causes the most problems for our company.

Monday, 20 April 2020

Injury Incident Pyramid

Topic : Incident Reporting 

Injury Incident Pyramid

Many of us know about the Incident Pyramid already, but some of the newer employees may not.
This pyramid is nothing more than a representation of the statistics about injuries. Year after year, industry after industry, injuries statistically fall into this pyramid.

Near Misses –&  Unsafe Acts are the bottom of the pyramid. There are thousands of these. These are things such as not wearing your seat-belt on a forklift. Not putting your machine in ESP while clearing a jam, not wearing cut resistant gloves while putting on a cutting die or changing cutting blades.

Next up are Recordable Injuries. These are injuries that require more than basic first aid. The injury may require a prescription anti-biotic, physical therapy, a few sutures and things that are above and beyond first aid treatment. For all the thousands of near misses and unsafe acts, sooner or later it will result in an injury that requires this type of treatment.

Incident Pyramid

Next up are Life Changing Serious Injuries. For every 600 recordable injuries statistically, year after year, industry after industry, there will be 30 life changing injuries. That is 5%. These are injuries such as amputations, major surgeries, broken bones and the like. These types of injuries will change your life and those who depend on you.

And finally at the top there is a Fatal Injury. For every 30 life changing injuries, there will be one fatal injury.

So what does this mean? We need to work on the unsafe acts and the near misses at the base of the pyramid. If you can reduce or eliminate those, then you can stop the cascade effect that comes with injuries to begin with. To eliminate the recordable and life changing injuries you need to reduce the near misses and unsafe acts.

The only way to stop it is to eliminate the unsafe acts and near misses.

Saturday, 17 August 2019

Accident/Incident Reporting

Topic : Accident Reporting 

Accident/Incident Reporting

The accident or incident information should be reported to (don’t forget the company Safety Committee) and who will fill out the Injury Report in the company format.

The following points should be covered in discussing the importance of reporting and investigating accidents, incidents or near miss accidents:

Guide for Discussion
  • Always report any accidents or near misses to Employer.
  • Any injuries needing first aid or medical attention should be reported to Employer.
  • What employees do in the case of an emergency (first aid and calling for an ambulance)?
  • Where is the nearest hospital? What is the nearest cross street? (Note: Discuss the information necessary to direct an ambulance to the worksite.)
  • Who are the first aid qualified people on the job site?
  • Anyone witnessing an accident should report what he or she saw to Employer.
  • All accidents involving medical treatment should have an investigation conducted to determine the cause.
Always report any unsafe condition or unsafe acts, no matter how minor, to your Employer. It’s far better to prevent accidents than it is to report, investigate, deal with the workers’ compensation carrier, and have the loss of a valuable employee.

Monday, 1 July 2019

Near Miss Reporting

Near Miss Reporting


A “near miss” is an unplanned event that did not result in injury, illness or damage - but had the potential to do so.

Sometimes called a “near hit” or “close call” – indicates a system weakness and if not corrected, could lead to significant consequences in future.


  • Not knowing what is near miss & its impacts in future
  • Feeling embarrassed
  • Fear of being blamed
  • Negative image of the company by clients
  • Negative image of the reporter

  • It helps us to establish and continue safe practices in the workplaces
  • It enables an employer to communicate facts, causes and corrective actions to all employees regarding near misses.
  • It avoid/prevent future accidents and injuries.
  • Provides opportunity to improve health, safety and environment - HSE.
  • Reduces tolerance for risk.
  • Avoids complacency.
  • Provides a tool to identify workplace hazards
  • Allows employee involvement in safety program
  • Demonstrates management’s commitment to safety.
  • Allows identification of possible trends.



  • Sometimes issue [unsafe conditions / acts] is not obvious
  • May not be recognized as near miss
  • When in doubt, consider as near miss


  • Employees need to feel comfortable in reporting near misses.
  • Employees should not be afraid of disciplinary action or pressure by reporting.
  • Organization’s safety culture is such that reporting a near miss is important and necessary.

  • Rapid distribution of near miss information is the foremost important action.
  • Quick distribution helps to ensure fast resolution, which reduces likelihood of potential accident occurring.
  • Follow-up should occur quickly.
Direct & root-cause analysis
  • Assess the direct and underlying root causes that contributed to an incident.
  • Determine corrective actions or solutions to rectify the root cause so that recurrence is less likely.
Solution identification
  • Corrective actions need to be determined for each cause.
  • Ideally corrective actions should eliminate potential for recurrence but may not always be feasible.
  • Desirable solutions reduce likelihood of recurrence or at least reduce potential impact in case of recurrence.
  • Corrective actions information should be sent to all employees in the organization.
  • Should include individuals implementing corrective actions at location where near miss occurred.
  • It ensures potential accidents do not occur in future.
  • Resolutions should be promoted and tracked.
  • If employees think near misses are acted upon, a good & effective reporting culture will develop in the organization.


Tuesday, 23 October 2018

Accident Investigation

Accident Investigation

Digging deep into the circumstances of an accident will help you prevent future accidents in your workplace—ultimately helping your organization avoid unnecessary financial costs and helping
your employees and their families avoid personal hardship.

Accidents don’t “just happen.” They’re caused by a series of unsafe behaviors, steps or events.

Most of these factors can be controlled once you’ve investigated the accident and identified them. You may realize you need to take steps to eliminate hazards or improve the workflow. You
may identify a need for training, enforcing housekeeping rules or purchasing equipment to make
the job less hazardous.

You may find, too, that demonstrating a commitment to employee safety and well-being produces
other benefits reflected by more positive employee attitudes about safety and even performance.

The best way to get your organization started doing accident investigations is to have a program
in place so you’re ready to act when an accident does happen. Below are some steps to help you set
up your program.

Then, to actually investigate an accident, you’ll need to use the systematic approach make sure to cover all the bases and arrive at conclusions and action steps that ultimately produce the results you are looking.

1. Determine who should do the investigating.

Accident investigations are not complex or mysterious. However, the person doing the investigating
should have a basic understanding of the job functions and efficient problem-solving techniques.
Consider involving supervisors in accident investigations. The supervisor is often well-suited because he or she:
  • Was there when it happened.
  • Is accountable for the people and equipment.
  • Knows most if not all employees involved.
  • Understands the hazards of the job.
  • Will most likely be the person to implement corrective action.
Accident investigations can also be conducted by members of your safety committee, management,
safety personnel or a third party.

2. Create a written plan.

Be sure to include:
  • The purpose of investigating accidents—
    • to identify causes, 
    • not to place blame.
  • Who is responsible for initiating and conducting each accident investigation.
  • What must be investigated.
  • When, why, where and how to investigate.
  • Who will review the findings and other pointers clarifying the flow of information.
  • Who is responsible for implementing corrective actions.
 Having all this in written form will help you in sharing and reviewing the plan with others. It will also, over the years ahead, help your organization stay consistently on track with the goal of finding and eliminating the causes of accidents.

Consider a policy committing your organization to investigating all accidents, as opposed to doing it selectively. Many of the companies with the best loss prevention track records have a “We investigate all accidents” policy.

3. Educate your supervisors about investigating.

This assumes, of course, that supervisors are the persons who will be doing the investigating. They’ll need to be acquainted with the four-point approach to accident investigations. (To investigate an accident, try this four-point approach)

When training on accident investigation, it may also be a good time to retrain your supervisors on their other safety responsibilities including:
  • Training new and existing employees in safe practices.
  • Enforcing safety rules and procedures.
  • Reporting injuries promptly and accurately.
  • Providing positive reinforcement of safe behaviors.
4. Communicate your accident investigation policy.

Depending on your organization, this may be a policy you should include in your employee handbook. It will formalize the procedures and communicate company wide your management’s commitment to investigating and preventing accidents.

This might also be a good time to let every employee know his or her responsibilities in the safety process, such as securing a situation immediately and notifying a supervisor.

Your investment of time in organizing and doing accident investigation is well worth it, yielding big returns for your organization in the long run. It’s a vital part of an effective loss prevention program, whether your organization is large or small, labor-intensive or office work.

By understanding why accidents happen in your workplace, taking corrective actions and thereby minimizing future injuries, you are helping build the foundation for a lasting culture of safety. Instead of paying all those direct and indirect costs of lost-time injuries, you’ll be receiving the direct and indirect rewards of effective loss prevention and a more appreciative, safety-focused workforce.

To investigate an accident, try this four-point approach

To investigate an accident, try this four-point approach

These instructions are a systematic approach to analyzing an accident. They’ll help you make sure you’re covering all the bases so you can learn from what’s h
appened and take the right steps to prevent it from happening again.

You may also find the attached “Accident analysis worksheet” useful. Fill out a worksheet each time you are investigating an incident. The worksheet will help you answer key questions about the incident and walk you through your investigation.

1. Collect data.

To begin with, you’ll want to find out some basic information about what happened, and then you’ll want to probe deeper.

Talk to witnesses. Besides the injured employee, others directly involved such as co-workers and the supervisor often can be good sources. Ask:
  • What type of injury occurred? Was it an accident? Body part injured?
  • What type of treatment was received? Physician? Hospital? Clinic?
  • Was there lost time from work? Number of days?
  • What happened and how did it happen? Was any equipment damaged?
  • What caused the incident? Why did it happen?
  • What could be done to prevent recurrence? By whom? When?
  • Was the employee violating safety regulations or specific instruction?
  • What other concerns do you have about this injury?

Help witnesses think through what they observed about the incident, otherwise you’ll probably get only a small portion of what they really know about it.

Ideally, accidents should be investigated right away. If an emergency makes that impractical, then do it as soon as you can while the facts are still clear to those involved, witnesses haven’t influenced one another thoughts, and the physical conditions haven’t been disrupted.

Review maintenance and training records. This may help you determine whether the accident was a result of an employee’s unsafe act or an equipment failure.

2. Identify the causes.

Accident investigation looks at four possible causes:

A. Equipment:
  •  Is it working properly? 
  • Are the guards and other safety precautions present and functioning
B. At - risk behaviors:
  • Were there procedures not implemented? 
  • Are safety procedures routinely enforced? 
  • Was the employee working alone? 
  • Was the employee out of sight from co-workers?
C. Personnel
  • Was the employee properly trained for this particular job? 
  • What shift and how long was the employee’s shift? 
  • Can the employee read the language on warnings? 
  • Was the employee wearing PPE?
D. Environment:
  • Was the work area properly lit? 
  • Were work surfaces free of clutter and distraction? 
  • Was noise an issue? Chemicals? Dust? 
  • Was space sufficient to do the task? 
  • Was the floor free of clutter?
3. Analyze the findings.

Examine the facts and observations, and be conscious of what’s missing.

Your analysis should distinguish between immediate causes and underlying causes. An immediate cause maybe an unsafe condition like a mechanical failure such as a broken rung on a ladder. Or it could be an unsafe action by an employee such as running instead of walking. The underlying cause could be poor machine maintenance, a missing guard, a crowded work area, lack of training or supervision.

4. Develop a plan for corrective action. 

The plan should mirror the results you got from your analysis.

Make recommendations for each of the possible causes identified. After this investigation, for instance, you may suggest changes to machinery, work procedures, employee training, safety process or personnel.

Wednesday, 1 August 2018

Near Miss Reporting

Near Miss Reporting

Whether there is no injury, a small bruise or scratch, or an amputation, the consequences of unsafe acts and conditions are left to chance.

A ratio showing a relationship between the number of near-miss incidents and injury incidents reported by researchers shows that for every 15 near-miss incidents, there will be one injury. In other words, there are 15 missed opportunities to prevent an injury.

Hundreds of near misses go unreported each month at our facility. Many of you may not think of an incident as a near miss, but it is more often human nature that keeps these lessons from being reported and improving the safety system.

Reasons employees don’t report near misses include:

  • They do not want to be blamed for problems or mistakes;
  • They do not want to create more work;
  • They do not want to be perceived as a troublemaker or careless. 

It takes time to report a near miss and there are several reasons people don't do it.

However, it is truly important you report them. If not, what is lost is a free lesson in injury prevention.

The few minutes spent reporting and investigating near-miss incidents can help prevent similar incidents, and even severe injuries.

The difference between a near miss and an injury is typically a fraction of an inch or a split second

Monday, 30 July 2018

Not Reporting Near Misses

Not Reporting Near Misses

There are a number of common reasons why people don’t report near misses. One is that we don't want to get into trouble with a supervisor or fellow worker. Another reason might be embarrassment. Nobody likes to admit to being part of an accident or close call. Or we might find it is too much trouble to report it - forms to fill out, questions to answer.

Of course, none of these reasons amount to much when you consider that reporting a close call might save a co-worker from serious injury or death. Imagine what it would be like to watch a buddy die because of a hazard which you knew about but did not report. Think about it - what if you were the only one who knew materials were being stacked unsafely, because just last week you had to jump out of the way of a falling object? How would you feel if another worker was crushed and killed when the stack collapsed again?

When an accident occurs and someone is injured or killed, chances are someone else knew that the hazards existed. Think about that. Someone else probably had a hunch that the brakes were worn out, or the emergency exit was blocked, or the chemical container was in a position to be knocked over or whatever . . .

How do you think that person will feel after an accident occurs? Chances are, he'll wish he had reported the hazard.

Near Misses - The Warning Signal

Near Misses - The Warning Signal

How many times have you shrugged off a near miss? Never gave it a second thought? Next time, think twice. The difference between a near miss and an accident often is a fraction of a second or an inch. And when it happens again, that difference may not be there.

We never know when the serious injury is next.

One study shows that for every 330 incidents of the same type, 300 produce no injuries, 29 produce minor injuries and one produces a major injury. (Of course, these statistics vary with the job being done.) The problem is we never know which time the major injury will occur. Near misses are warnings. If we heed these warnings and look for causes, we may be able to prevent injury or damage.

Here’s an example:

You are going up a walkway into a building. Your foot slips. Being agile and empty handed, you regain your balance with no harm done.

Another person comes along. He slips, but his reactions are a little slower than yours. To keep from falling, he jumps off the walkway. Again no harm done.

Then comes a third person carrying a load. He has the same experience, but falls off the walkway with the load on top of him. He breaks his ankle.

Two warnings were ignored. Finally, someone was hurt. Now the loose cleat, sand, or mud on the walkway is discovered and the condition corrected. We've locked the barn after the horse has been stolen. Two of us saw the thief lurking around, but failed to take action. Whenever you see a near miss, ask "Why?"

Suppose you're walking toward a suspended mason's scaffold. You see a brick fall, but hear no warning shout. Ask yourself: "Why did it fall? Was it kicked loose? Is a toe board missing?" Then correct this condition if possible. If not, report it to someone who can. Don't let your inaction cause someone else's injury.

Near Misses

Near Misses

A worker received an electric shock on a piece of equipment he was using. He was not injured, and he did not report the incident. A few days later another worker also received a shock from the same defective equipment, and again did not report the problem. Within days a third worker also received an electrical shock which killed him.

This true story illustrates what can happen when we ignore close calls in the work place. A close call is a chance to identify a hazard and correct it before someone is seriously injured or killed.

We have all had many experiences with close calls or near misses in our everyday lives. The best thing we can do is to pay attention to them and learn from them.

For example, most of us have slipped while rushing down a stairway. We may have caught ourselves before falling, and then resolve to slow down in the future.

Another example is pulling out to pass when driving and being faced with an on-coming car. We quickly pull back into our own lane, and tell ourselves next time we will make sure it is safe before we try to pass.

In both instances, there was the potential for a serious accident but we were lucky. We have learned something by the close call, and will probably be more aware in the future.

Close calls in the workplace serve the same function. They give us an opportunity to recognize that something is wrong and to do something about it before someone gets hurt.

Be sure to report near misses. You have the opportunity to help a coworker