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Showing posts with label Risk Analysis. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Risk Analysis. Show all posts

Friday, 25 September 2020

Risk Assessment : The 5 Steps Approach

Risk Assessment : The 5 Steps Approach

Definition:

A hazard is anything that may cause harm, such as chemicals, electricity, working from ladders, an open drawer, etc;

 
The risk is the chance, high or low that somebody could be harmed by these and other hazards, together with an indication of how serious the harm could be.

In many organizations, the risk are well known and the necessary control measures are easy to apply.

How to access the risk in you workplace


The 5 Steps Approach

Step 1  -  Identify hazards.

Step 2  -  Assess the risks.

Step 3  -  Control the risks.

Step 4  -  Record findings.

Step 5  -  Review and update.


Step 1 – Identify hazards

  • Walk around your workplace and look at what could reasonably be expected to cause harm.
  • Ask your fellow colleagues what they think.  They may have noticed things that are not immediately obvious to you.
  • Check manufacturers’ instructions or data sheets for chemicals and equipment as they can be very helpful in spelling out the hazards and putting them in their true perspective.
  • Remember to think about long-term hazards to health (e.g. high levels of noise or exposure to harmful substances) as well as safety hazards.

 Step 2 – Assess the risks (Decide who might be harmed and how)

  • For each hazard you need to be clear about who might be harmed. 
    • It will help to identify the best way of managing the risk.
    • This doesn’t mean listing everyone by name, but rather identifying groups of people.
  • In each case, identify how they might be harmed.
    • What type of injury or ill health might occur.
    • e.g. Shelf stackers may suffer back injury from repeated lifting of heavy boxes.
 Step 3 – Control the risks (Evaluate the risk and decide precautions)
  • Having spotted the hazards, decide what to do about them.
    • The law requires to do everything ‘reasonably practicable’ to protect the people from harm.
    • Compare what you are doing with best practices.
  • Consider
    • Can the hazard be eliminate altogether?
    • If not, how to control the risks so that harm is unlikely?
  • When controlling risk, apply the principles below.
    • Try less risky option – e.g. switch to use less hazardous chemical.
    • Prevent access to hazard – e.g. by guarding.
    • Organize work to reduce exposure to the hazard – e.g. put barriers between pedestrians and traffic.
    • Issue PPE – e.g. clothing, footwear, goggles, etc.
    • Provide welfare facilities – e.g. first-aid and washing facilities for removal of contamination.
  • Involve staff ensure the proposal will work in practice and won’t introduce new hazards.
 
 Step 4 – Record findings and implement them
  • Write down the results of the risk assessment. 
  • Share them with the staff.
  • Keep the record simple, suitable and sufficient.
  • Plan for implementation.  
    • Immediate containment actions until more reliable control are in place.  
    • Long-term solutions to risks most likely to cause accidents or ill health.  
    • Long-term solutions to those risks with worst potential consequences.  
    • Arrangement for training.  
    • Regular checks to ensure control measures stay in place.
 
Step 5 – Review the risk assessment and update
  • Why review? 
    • Few workplace stays the same. 
  • Review assessment to determine if there have been changes or need improvements. 
  • Ensure the assessment stay up to date.

 

 

 

Monday, 15 July 2019

Job Hazard Analysis


Job Hazard Analysis

What is a hazard?

A hazard is the potential for harm. In practical terms, a hazard often is associated with a condition or activity that, if left uncontrolled, can result in an injury or illness.

JHA
What is a job hazard analysis?

A job hazard analysis is a technique that focuses on job tasks as a way to identify hazards before they occur. After identifying the uncontrolled hazards, we will take steps to eliminate or reduce them to an acceptable risk level.


Why is job hazard analysis important?

Many workers are injured and killed at the workplace every day due to unsafe work condition. To eliminate unsafe work condition and to ensure safety of employees/ subcontractor while working at jobsite by identifying the activity specific hazards and control.

When to conduct a JHA?
  • Every day before starting the work at job site.
  • When a new job is to be established.

Who has to conduct JHA?

It is the responsibility of the supervisor or directly in charge of the job to ensure a JHA is completed. All site employees and subcontractors must be involved while conducting job site specific JHA’s.
JHA technique
  • Identify / Select the job/ activity to be analyzed.
  • Break the job down into a sequence of steps.
o   Identify the potential hazards involving all team members.
o   Determine preventive methods as per hierarchy of control to overcome these hazards.
o   Document the results on JHA board.

How to conduct JHA?
  • Step 1- Involve employees & subcontractors to conduct a preliminary job/ activity review
  • Step 2- Review with employees for worksites history of accidents and occupational illnesses.
  • Step 3- List, rank, and set priorities for hazardous job/ activities.
  • Step 4- Outline the steps or tasks.
  • Step 5- Outline the workplace hazards.
  • Step 6- List out the control measures which need to eliminate/ control the hazard.
  • Step 7- Make available of JHA boards and display it at workplace where it can be easily accessible for all employees to read it.
  • Step 8 -Write down permanent hazard (which are identified at jobsite or which is client scope) on JHA board in local or any other language which can be easily understood by employees, subcontractors and visitors who visiting to site.
  • Step 9- Mention control measures as per hierarchy of control to be taken on JHA Board.
  • Step 10- Work related hazards which are identified prior to start job on each day shall communicate to each employee & contractors, record of the same to be maintained as well as display these identified hazards with its control measures on JHA board.

Determining the Preventive Measures or Controls

  1. Elimination :- Physically remove the hazards
  2. Substitution :-  Replace the hazards
  3. Engineering Controls :- Isolate people from the hazards
  4. Administrative Control : Change the way people work
  5. PPEs : Protect the worker with Personal Protective Equipment’s  


Follow-up
Once the JHA is completed and all identified hazards have been considered and controls determined. The Supervisor shall be responsible for ensuring the implementation with employees/ subcontractor.

Recording
The Supervisor, Engineer, Project Manager or Nominee shall ensure that all identified hazards with control measure to be maintained on JHA Board.

Reviewing JHA
A sample of JHA’s shall be reviewed on daily basis. If any changes should be marked on JHA Board and communicate it to all site employees/ subcontractor employees.

Monday, 9 July 2018

Identify Amputation Hazards in Your Workplace

Identify Amputation Hazards in Your Workplace

Workplace accidents resulting in amputations are often severe, sometimes disabling, and always preventable.
A moment's inattention—and a hand is caught in machinery. A single misstep; a foot slips in. Maybe the amputation is immediate, or perhaps the doctors determine later that a limb is too damaged to repair. Either way, it could have been prevented.

Most Hazardous Exposures

Four exposures have been identified as the leading causes of nonfatal workplace amputations:
  • Machinery and equipment. The greatest percentage of nonfatal amputations occurs when workers are caught in or crushed by running machinery or equipment, or when they are caught in or crushed by machinery that cycles unexpectedly.
  • Parts or materials. The second most common situation that leads to nonfatal amputations occurs when workers are caught in, crushed by, or struck against parts and materials—for example, when a load shifts unexpectedly or stored materials collapse on a worker.
  • Vehicles. Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of fatal amputations, and the third-leading cause of nonfatal amputations.
  • Hand tools. Hand tools, such as handheld circular saws, are the fourth most common cause of nonfatal amputations.

Watch For These Hazards

When you look for amputation hazards on machinery and equipment, remember these hazards:
  • Pinch points, where two parts move together and at least one of them is moving in a circle. Pinch points often occur along belt drives, chain drives, gear drives, and feeder rolls.
  • Wrap points, where there is an exposed piece of rotating machinery, such as a rotating shaft, especially if it extends beyond bearings or sprockets. Because they can catch clothing or fingers more easily, shafts that are splined, square, or hexagonal are generally more dangerous.
  • Shear pointswhere two moving parts move across each other or a single, sharp edge moves with enough speed or force to cut. Chain or paddle conveyors, trimmers, forklifts, and enclosed augers have shear points.
  • Crush points, where two objects are moving toward each other, or one object is moving toward a stationary object. Gears are common crush points.
  • Pull-in points, where objects can be pulled into equipment. Feeder rolls or grinders are common pull-in points.
  • Thrown objectshurled by equipment with moving parts. Chippers are known to be common sources of thrown objects.

Making Hazard Recognition Second Nature



Making Hazard Recognition Second Nature


  • Understand how unsafe acts can lead to accidents
  • Participate in safety training every opportunity you get
  • Use your safety knowledge in all aspects of your job, every hour of the day
  • Help instruct new workers in identifying potentially hazardous situations

  • Identify Unsafe Acts

    1. Be aware of your surroundings

    2. Many hazards are obvious to those who open their eyes and minds to see them

    Correct Potential Hazards



    1. Hazard recognition is valuable only when corrective action is taken

    2. Report all potential hazards to your supervisor
    3. Work with your supervisor to make sure the hazard is corrected and communicate with co-workers so they
    don’t cause any potential hazards
    4. Be the safety coordinator for your work area and stress the importance of safety to your co-workers
    5. If you are not sure what to do, ask Correct Potential Hazards
  • Review safety procedures for your job and work area on a daily basis
  • Strategies for Reducing Exposure Risk

    Strategies for Reducing Exposure Risk

    Hazardous chemicals are a real and present danger in workplaces, according to OSHA. If yours is one of them, train your workers to avoid the risk of exposure.
    1. Know What You're Up Against
    • Pay attention to safety training, and learn all you can about potential hazards.
    • Ask questions whenever you’re not sure about a hazard or protective measure.
    • Read the chemical label and MSDS to learn about:
      -Health problems that can result from exposure, and
      -Routes of exposure.
    2. Use Assigned Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
    • Read the MSDS to find out which type of PPE will protect you from exposure.
    • Select PPE that's in good condition and fits properly.
    • Remove and dispose of PPE carefully to prevent the spread of contamination.
    3. Handle Chemicals Safely
    • Inspect containers regularly, and report leaks and missing or unreadable labels.
    • Keep containers closed when not in use.
    • Remove from a container only the amount you need for a job.
    • Use required ventilation to remove vapors.
    • Store and use chemicals away from conditions that could cause hazardous reactions.
    4. Practice Good Hygiene
    • Keep food, drink, tobacco products, cosmetics, and street clothes out of hazardous areas.
    • Wash thoroughly after working with hazardous chemicals.
    • Launder separately work clothes that may be contaminated.
    5. Know What to Do in an Emergency
    • Clean up spills and leaks immediately if you are authorized and trained to do so, or alert trained responders.
    • Follow your evacuation route immediately in an emergency.
    • Act fast after contact with a hazardous material:
      -Get into fresh air after inhalation; then get medical attention.
      -Flush with water after skin or eye contact; then get medical attention.
      -Get immediate medical attention after swallowing a hazardous material.

    Why It Matters

    • The basic goal of hazard communication is to ensure your employees understand the hazards of chemicals and the precautions they must take to protect their safety, health, and the environment.
    • Now, under the GHS, the Hazard Communication Standard will change,with the international system.
    • Employees need to understand the Hazard Communication Standard, the risks of exposure, the new GHS-compliant chemical labels and SDSs, and measures they can take to protect themselves.

    Friday, 6 July 2018

    Field Level Risk Assessment Handbook



    FIELD LEVEL RISK ASSESSMENT HANDBOOK

    INTRODUCTION

    This document has the following sections:

    1. Making the Decision to Use Field Level Risk Assessment.

    • Read this to decide if you are interested in using Field Level Risk Assessment in your company.

    • What is Field Level Risk
    • Benefits of Field Level Risk
    • Your Decision

    2. Managing Field Level Risk Assessment

    • Read this to learn more about the process of Field Level Risk Assessment.


    v  The Model and Tools

    v  How To Start Using Field Level Risk

    v  How To Manage the Ongoing Use of Field Level Risk


    3. Overview of Field Level Risk Assessment Tools and Training

    • Read this section to find out what tools and training are available to use in your company. A sample plan to use in your company is included.


    v  Overview of Tools and

    v  Making Your Plan: A Tool

    v  Templates


    Element 1:


    MAKING THE DECISION TO USE FIELD LEVEL RISK ASSESSMENT

    WHAT IS FIELD LEVEL RISK ASSESSMENT?


    It is a method that individuals and crews use to eliminate or minimize potential losses (to

    People, property, materials or environment) during the course of doing work.


    Field Level Risk Assessment is a way for workers and crews to:

    • Identify hazards associated with work tasks and assess their risks on the day of the job.
    • Put controls in place so that risks are kept to an acceptable level.


    Field Level Risk Assessment is a way for companies to:

    • Learn how to decrease risk and increase the reliability of work.
    • Reduce the number and associated costs of incidents, accidents and injury.


    Field Level Risk Assessment has:

    • Tools that help workers stop think and put controls in place.
    • Training for supervisors and workers.
    • Sample forms that can be used to document field level risk assessments and make improvements.



    BENEFITS OF FIELD LEVEL RISK ASSESSMENT


    FOR COMPANIES

    ü  Improved work methods and productivity

    ü  Direct cost savings

    ü  WCB premium reduction

    ü  Decreased costs to pass on to customers. A competitive edge.

    ü  Better data to improve company safety

    ü  Reduction in the “emotional” costs of accidents and injuries

    ü  Increased trust and confidence of workers

    ü  Due diligence


    FOR WORKERS

    ü  Reduced probability of injuries

    ü  More security for their families

    ü  Improved morale

    ü  Opportunity to make work place improvements

    ü  Opportunity for recognition of increased contribution to the company

    ü  Improved ability to think critically



    USING FIELD LEVEL RISK ASSESSMENT


    Making this system work in your company will take effort. You will need to:


    • Learn to do field level risk assessment.
    • Develop a plan for using it in your company.
    • Change existing company systems to support this new way of doing work e.g. record keeping, safety policies, reward systems, etc.
    • Get people on board. This is not just the “fad of the month”.
    • Make sure people are trained to use the system.
    • Monitor whether people are using the field level risk assessment process.
    • Deal with the “slow down to speed up” problems that may occur at first.
    • Use the information that is generated in the written reports to improve the way work is done.


    QUESTIONS TO ASK YOURSELF BEFORE YOU DECIDE


    • Are you concerned about losses that your company has because of incidents?
    • Do you think that workers can make a difference to your company’s profit and loss?
    • Are you prepared to do the work to get started? E.g. Plan, train, motivates, etc.?
    • Are you prepared to make changes to support using this process in your company? E.g. developing record keeping methods, giving recognition?
    • Are you prepared to keep the focus on this process until people establish the habit?



    Read on and find how to implement and manage


    Element 2:


    MANAGING FIELD LEVEL RISK ASSESSMENT THE MODEL AND TOOLS


    THE MODEL


    What is Field Level Risk Assessment?

    • It is a mental process used by both individual supervisors and workers.
    • It is a problem solving process that uses discussion on the job site.
    • It includes writing down the outcomes of the discussion. This part is optional but strongly recommended.


    How is Field Level Risk Assessment done?


    Supervisor and crew discuss the work to be done on the day of the job. Together they:


    • Identify the job steps.
    • Identify the hazards associated with each step.
    • Assess the level of risk for each hazard.
    • Identify and put in place the controls to effectively control the risk The Supervisor:
    • Prepares and leads Field Level Risk Assessment discussions
    • Documents this information on a form prepared for this purpose.
    • Submits the documentation for analysis and review.
    • Makes completed form available to crew. Each worker:
    • Stops and thinks about hazards, risks and controls while working. Specifically assigned personnel:
    • Review the field level risk assessment data to identify ways to reduce hazards and risk on an ongoing basis.


    Where is Field Level Risk Assessment done?


    • At the job site


    When is Field Level Risk Assessment done?


    • At the beginning of a new job or new shift
    • When new workers come on site
    • When the information about the work changes (e.g. changed plans, unexpected
    • characteristics of the task such as new configuration of equipment)
    • Whenever job site conditions change (e.g. weather, availability of tools etc.)


    Who does Field Level Risk Assessment?

    • The supervisor thinks through the process to prepare for meeting with the crew.
    • The supervisor leads a discussion with the crew encouraging their analysis and feedback.
    • The worker does it as a mental process as he/she works.


    Why Do Field Level Risk Assessment?


    To fulfil the employer requirements of the Occupational Health and Safety Act:


    • Employers are required “to ensure as far as it is reasonably practicable” the health and safety of workers present at the work site.
    • Workers are required to protect the health and safety of themselves and others.
    • Employers are required to make sure workers are aware of their health and safety responsibilities.


    To, reduce loss due to uncontrolled hazards. Field Level Risk Assessment:


    • Facilitates a safer working environment for people.
    • Helps to minimizes or eliminates losses to property, materials and the environment.



    FIELD LEVEL RISK ASSESSMENT PROCESS


    This document provides the process used to conduct the Field Level Risk Assessment and put controls in place. It provides Field Level Risk Assessment is integrated into other company safety initiatives. Note that Field Level Risk Assessment does not replace other planning and risk assessment processes. Methods such as Hazop and Job Safety Analysis are used before construction begins. Field Level Risk Assessment incorporates the information from these processes and adds day of the job information. Although writing down the results of the team discussion may not appear to improve the risk assessment, it is highly recommended. Writing things down encourages better thinking. The information obtained from the team discussions can be used to improve work procedures and will improve safety in the long run.


    When do we initiate a Risk Assessment?


    (i.e. Change of work or workers Change to working area Start of a new job or task Tailgate/Toolbox Meetings


    Process Flow Detail


    Process Definition: A method that an individual or crew would use to minimize or eliminate potential losses (to people, property, materials or equipment) during the course of conducting work.


    Inputs:

      • Plan or Project Job Package
      • Company Safety Program
      • Job Procedures
      • Standards and Practices
      • Job Safety Analysis (JSA)


    Assess/Evaluate ID Hazards ID Job/


    Activity


    Hazard adequately controlled to an acceptable level of Risk?


    Document for Further Reference and Analysis

    Yes

    No

    Control


    Does the Hazard need to be further controlled?


    Yes

    No

    No further

    Documentation

    Required



    Outputs:


    Monitor Risk trends (from documentation)

      • Adjustments to project design
      • Safety policy changes
      • Changes to practices or work procedures



    HOW TO START USING FIELD LEVEL RISK ASSESSMENT


    CHALLENGES WORKERS MAY HAVE


    1. Field Level Risk Assessment requires workers to stop and think before doing even routine tasks. It is easier just to work as usual. Changing any habit is hard. Thinking before doing will get easier with practice and reinforcement.
    2. Field Level Risk Assessment requires critical thinking skills that may be underdeveloped in some workers. As workers develop these thinking skills, they will improve their performance in many other situations.
    3. Field Level Risk Assessment requires individuals to accept responsibility for thinking and taking action. Many people expect to be told what to do but they like to give ideas. With input comes a greater commitment to good work.
    4. Doing Field Level Risk Assessment may mean challenging authority for some people. Supervisors may expect to do the thinking and the telling. They may be uncomfortable having workers tell them that something at the work site needs to be done differently. Workers may be uncomfortable playing that role. Using this process builds teams.
    5. Using the forms requires more paperwork that most foremen do not enjoy. The process of writing assessments requires crews to think through conditions more carefully. It also means that their ideas and suggestions are recorded and used by the company to improve safety.


    NOTE: Using the ideas “How to Get People on Board” will help to overcome many of these problems.


    HOW TO GET PEOPLE ON BOARD


    Implementing Field Level Risk Assessment represents a change for your company. Understanding what people need to motivate them to change is helpful. You can then address their needs in your plan.


    What People NEED To Start Using FIELD LEVEL RISK ASSESSMENT

    What YOU CAN DO To Get People on Board


    People need to understand that there is a serious problem and that doing Field Level Risk Assessment is the best solution for:


    ü  The Company

    ü  Themselves


    Give information that describes the problem.


    Gather information that answers these questions:


    • How much do accidents cost?
    • How do these costs affect our competitive position in the market place?
    • How will reduced costs affect company contracts and keep workers employed?
    • How will Field Level Risk Assessment reduce their personal risk?


    Give information about the results you are shooting for:


    • What are your objectives regarding incidents, accidents and injury?
    • What will you do to make Field Level Risk Assessment an ongoing way of doing work?

    People need to be involved in getting Field Level Risk Assessment going.

    Ask the “leaders” in your company to help plan and install Field Level Risk Assessment.

    · Choose both supervisors and workers

    · Choose some “hard nuts” that have influence


    What People NEED To Start Using FIELD LEVEL RISK ASSESSMENT

    What YOU CAN DO To Get People on Board


    People need to know that progress toward the objectives of reduced incidents,

    accidents and injury will be measured.


    Choose the measures and tell people.


    • Use numbers. E.g. How many forms?
    • What is the reduction in accidents?
    • Track quality e.g. how well are forms filled out? What is the reduction in accidents of the same type?
    • Use ad hoc measures e.g. conversations on the work site asking, “How it is going?”
    • Set up regular ways to report results e.g. newsletters, bulletin boards, meetings. People will use Field Level Risk Assessment, if consequences are clear and used. Put rewards/ recognition in place.
    • Focus on the positive.
    • Choose rewards that fit with your company’s best way of doing things.
    • Use persistent feedback as consequence for not using Field Level Risk Assessment i.e. I will check to make sure that you are doing it etc.
    • Deal with fears positively (e.g. Fears of speaking out).People need to be well trained and have the skills to use Field Level Risk Assessment. Train both workers and supervisors
    • Use the training packages provided by COAA. (customize as you like)
    • Use every opportunity to coach and reinforce the skills and behaviours.
    • Make sure that supervisors constantly train their crews.


    What People NEED To Start Using FIELD LEVEL RISK ASSESSMENT What YOU CAN DO To Get People on Board


    People need to get feedback on their use of Field Level Risk Assessment. Use many opportunities to give feedback to individuals and crews

    • Use safety meetings.
    • Attend tailgate sessions.
    • Use performance discussions if you have regular ones.
    • Use management meetings.
    • Use written and verbal methods.


    People need to have personal success or see others have success using Field Level Risk Assessment.


    • Produce “quick wins” and positive changes.
    • Find early successes and announce them.
    • Ask for examples of successes at safety and other meetings and gatherings. People need to see that management is serious about Field Level Risk Assessment
    • Use the employees’ suggestions to improve tools and procedures.
    • Invest in “controls” that make an ongoing difference.
    • Use the process yourself.


    What People NEED To Start to Use FIELD LEVEL RISK ASSESSMENT? What YOU CAN DO To Get People on Board


    People need to see that company systems, goals and measures reinforce not compete with doing Field Level Risk Assessments.


    Coordinate other systems and measures


    • Make risk assessment a primary goal, higher than getting the work done fast.
    • Reward and recognize individuals and crews who do risk assessment (promotions, added responsibility, visibility, prizes, cash, etc.).
    • Write policies and procedures about Field Level Risk Assessment.
    • Stream-line related paper-work to make sure it doesn’t interfere with Field Level Risk Assessment.
    • Set up a way to use the information from the Field Level Risk Assessment forms.
    • Change the job descriptions of everyone who is involved in doing field level risk assessment. This includes administrative people and those analyze the information from the forms.




    HOW TO MANAGE THE ONGOING USE OF FIELD OF

    LEVEL RISK ASSESSMENT


    MONITORING THE USE OF FIELD LEVEL RISK ASSESSMENT


    1. Use standards and indicators


    The questions “What do you want people to do?” and “How do you want them to do it?” are important management questions. Documented standards make these expectations clear for workers. There should be standards about Field Level Risk Assessment for both crews and individuals. Indicators describe how and when you will measure the performance in relation to the standards. Here are some examples:

    • At the beginning of every job, every shift, and every time there is a change in job plans or conditions, the crew will meet together and do a Field Level Risk Assessment.


    Possible Indicators: You see crew meetings taking place.

    • Every time a worker changes a task they do a mental Field Level Risk Assessment.


    Possible Indicators: You see workers putting controls in place, reporting concerns to foremen, stopping to think before starting a new job step.

    • Every time there is a crew discussion a Field Level Risk Assessment form is filled in.

    Possible Indicators: A minimum of one form is submitted for each day of crew activity.

    • At the end of each month, the Field Level Risk Assessment forms will be reviewed at a joint work site committee.


    Possible Indicator: Person assigned to this task submits a summary of hazards identified and suggestions for changes to improve how work is done.


    1. Make monitoring a standard process


    Decide how you will monitor, who will monitor, and when you will monitor. Here are some examples:

    • What you will do: Verbal reports at management and safety meetings, reports during performance discussions, spot checks at the work site, spot checks of documentation, audits, etc.
    • Who: Senior management, foremen, supervisors, health and safety staff.
    • When: Consistent and persistent time frames set for each activity.


    1. Keep records


    Decide what you will record to check your progress toward your objectives, which will do the recording and how it will be recorded. Here are some examples:

    • What: Field Level Risk Assessment Forms, monthly reports of suggestions, spot check results of crews and individuals
    • Who: Management, foremen
    • How: In personnel files, in data bases, hard files


    1. Develop a way to give feedback


    Communicate individual and company progress and performance in relation to targets and expectations.

    • Methods: newsletters, memos, announcements, one on one conversations, meetings




    USING FIELD LEVEL RISK ASSESSMENT TO IMPROVE

    BUSINESS RESULTS


    There are three ways that using Field Level Risk Assessment can improve your business results. They are:


    1. COST REDUCTION: Reduction in the number and severity of incidents, accidents and injury


    Consistent and effective use of Field Level Risk Assessment will reduce the number of incidents, accidents and injuries in your company. This change will reduce your costs. Consistent expectations, training, monitoring, feedback and rewards will establish Field Level Risk Assessment as a habitual practice for individuals and crews.


    2. IMPROVEMENT IN PROFITS: Improvement in the way work is done


    Incidents happen when effective measures are not put in place to control hazards. They are a symptom of a way of working that is not reliable. Using written procedures, better tools or equipment, or standards to govern working conditions can eliminate or reduce the severity of the risks. These changes also improve reliability. Improving reliability increases the quality and often the quantity of work that is done. Individual and crew productivity improve.

    By reviewing Field Level Risk Assessment forms, you can identify trends and patterns of hazards. An analysis of these trends and patterns may uncover ways to improve work methods. To achieve this result, it is crucial that you assign specific people to gather and analyse Field Level Risk Assessment data, solve the identified problems, and take action on making changes. Improvements will not happen without effort and good management.


    3. IMPROVEMENT IN COMPANY MORALE: Improved worker commitment


    Opportunity for growth and achievement, clear expectations and personal responsibility, the ability to influence, and working as a team are factors which influence employee motivation and commitment. Field Level Risk Assessment provides workers with these opportunities. Workers develop critical thinking skills, make meaningful contribution to the company’s success, and participate in important team problem solving. Increasing health and safety for themselves and others is perhaps the most important and motivating outcome of doing Field Level Risk Assessment. Although the impact of morale is not as easily measured as cost and profit, most managers agree there is correlation between high morale, productivity and quality of work. Field Level Risk Assessment has the potential to improve the attitudes people develop about work and the company.


    Element 3:


    OVERVIEW OF TOOLS AND TRAINING


    TOOLS

    Copies of these tools are found at the end of this document.


    MEMORY CARD

    This is a pocket-sized card for each worker. Your company can customize it.


    RISK ASSESSMENT MATRIX

    This is a simple matrix that helps to assess the risk associated with a hazard. The variables used to assess risk are the possible consequences associated with the hazard and the probability that it will occur.


    FIELD LEVEL RISK ASSESSMENT PROCESS FLOWCHART

    This is a flowchart that explains how the Field Level Risk Assessment process fits with other company loss management processes. It is useful as a pictorial overview of inputs, process steps and outputs of the process.


    FIELD LEVEL RISK ASSESSMENT FORM

    This is a form to record Field Level Risk Assessment discussions conducted by crews. The forms can be produced in pads that fit clipboards. The forms can be designed to include a process chart, memory jogger card information and the risk assessment matrix. They can also be produced in duplicate to provide copies for record keeping and analysis purposes.


    TRAINING/ INFORMATION

    Training and/or information in Field Level Risk Assessment is available for managers,

    Supervisors and workers.


    MANAGERS


    This document is provided to meet the information needs of managers who are interested in understanding Field Level Risk Assessment. It does not develop skill in using the process, however. Manager may wish to use the “Supervisor’s Guide to Field Level Risk Assessment: Part One – Self Study Training” to develop skill in doing Field Level Risk Assessment.


    SUPERVISORS


    “Supervisor’s Guide to Field Level Risk Assessment: Part One – Self-Study

    Training”

    The “Supervisor’s Self-Study Guide to Field Level Risk Assessment” is a self-study program designed to teach supervisors how to do Field Level Risk Assessment. It uses content and exercises from the training for workers but is to be done by self-study rather than in a group setting. It includes instruction in how to use the “Field Level Risk Assessment Form” and how to conduct a Field Level Risk Assessment discussion with a crew.



    After completing this self study training in Field Level Risk Assessment supervisors will be able to:

      1. Describe why Field Level Risk Assessment is needed to improve worker health and safety, work effectiveness and company profitability.
      2. Describe how Field Level Risk Assessment helps employers and workers full-fill the requirements of Occupational Health and Safety Legislation.
      3. Describe what Field Level Risk Assessment is, when it is done, and who does it.
      4. Describe the process steps for Field Level Risk Assessment.
      5. Identify the steps of a job and identify the hazards linked to each job step.
      6. Assess the risks linked to the hazards identified in a job using the Risk Assessment Matrix.
      7. Identify appropriate controls to put in place, to reduce risk to an acceptable level.
      8. Use a form to record Field Level Risk Assessment discussions.
      9. Make personal plans about using Field Level Risk Assessment to supervise workers more effectively.
      10. List the benefits that the company and workers experience through using Field Level Risk Assessment.


     “Supervisor Guide to Field Level Risk Assessment: Part Two Training Others”

    This contains information a supervisor or trainer would need to deliver training sessions to workers. It includes detailed instructions for teaching the sessions, overhead masters, and ideas about how to make the training fit your company’s needs.


    The table of contents is:


    1. Description of the Training

    2. How to Prepare Yourself for Delivering the Training

    3. Lesson Plans

    4. Overhead Masters

    5. How to Customize the Training

    6. Tips on How to Deliver Training


    WORKERS


    “Field Level Risk Assessment” Workshop


    This training workshop can be delivered in variety of two-hour formats. It uses

    discussion, practical examples and case studies. It is designed to teach skills and motivate workers.


    The purpose of the training is:


    To prepare work site personnel to use the Field Level Risk Assessment process, in a habitual way, to identify potential hazards, assess their magnitude, and decide if controls are needed.


    As a result of the course, workers will be able to:


    • Identify and describe a hazard, an assessment of risk and a control.
    • Describe the process of Field Level Risk Assessment.
    • List the two components of Field Level Risk Assessment.
    • Identify situations where the Field Level Risk Assessment process should be used.
    • Use the “Memory Jogger” questions to do a Field Level Risk Assessment.
    • Use the Risk Assessment Matrix to assess the risk in a situation.
    • Demonstrate their ability to do Field Level Risk Assessment in a group using a case study.
    • Discuss the kinds of hazards that are possible on a work site.
    • Discuss the types of controls that can be used to keep risk to an acceptable level.
    • Discuss the barriers to using Field Level Risk Assessment habitually and the supports that are available to overcome these barriers.
    • Discuss the responsibilities they have to use Field Level Risk Assessment.
    • Describe how Field Level Risk Assessment will be used in this company.
    • List the benefits of making Field Level Risk Assessment a habit on every job.



    MAKING YOUR PLAN: A TOOL


    What follows is a sample action plan for making Field Level Risk Assessment happens in your company. It is a planning tool as well as a checklist to track completion. The “How” column includes suggested methods. These suggestions are in italics.


    Action/Objective Who How? When? Done?


    STAGE 1: Build Commitment


    Key decision-makers in company become familiar with Field Level Risk Assessment Decision makers in Company · Read and discuss the “Field Level Risk Assessment:  Gather facts on the number and cost of incidents. Safety or other personnel, general manager Set challenging targets for improvement in incident, accident and injury figures Company management assign individual /team to develop company plan Company management. The individual/team become familiar with problem, targets and Field Level Risk Assessment Process Individual/team doing the plan


    • Members of the management team complete the “Supervisor Guide to Field Level Risk Assessment: Part One Self-Study Training”


    Action/Objective Who How? When? Done?


    STAGE 2: Get Ready


    Review company policies and procedures that will be affected by Field Level Risk Assessment. Individual or team doing the plan Find out how positions in the company would be affected by doing Field Level Risk

    Assessment, i.e. workers, supervisors/ foremen, individuals who will process Field Level Risk Assessment information. Individual or Team doing the plan


    • Ask management who they want to handle the documentation, the monitoring of worker and crew performance, recommendations that come from the process.


    Find out the quality of performance in Field Level Risk Assessment that company management expects.

    Individual or Team doing the plan


    • Ask management
    • Write a standard and get it approved


    Find out what rewards or consequences management wants to put in place for people doing or not doing Field Level Risk Assessment. Individual or Team doing the plan


    • Ask management
    • Make a proposal and have it approved


    Find out how Field Level Risk Assessment will affect other safety programs in the company. Individual or Team doing the plan Find out what resources (resource, people, time) are available for training workers and supervisors. Individual or Team doing the plan


    • Do a rough budget of training and other costs and give to management
    • Ask management for preliminary approval




    Action/Objective Who How? When? Done?


    STAGE 3: The Plan (who, when, how)


    1. Develop the communication for Field Level Risk Assessment. This includes getting it started and the ongoing communication that will be needed to keep it going. Individual or Team doing the plan


    1. Decide how changes in company policies, procedures and related safety programs/initiatives (including audits) will be made. Individual or Team doing the plan


    1. Determine how changes to roles/job descriptions will be made. Individual or Team doing the plan
    2. Develop the plan for the training of workers and supervisors/foremen. Individual or Team doing the plan


    1. Decide how documentation will be used to improve safety and work results. Individual or Team doing the plan Identify how, where and by whom documentation will be stored. Individual or Team doing the plan


    1. Develop a monitoring plan. Individual or Team doing the plan


    1. Decide how tools will be adapted for use in the company e.g. form, matrix Individual or Team doing the plan Identify what could go wrong with the plan and make adjustments. Individual or Team doing the plan


    Action/objective Who How? When? Done?


    STAGE 4: Taking Action


    1. Communicate about the program Management
    2. Change job responsibilities Management
    3. Change policies Management
    4. Set up new process to deal with documentation
    5. Administration/ Management
    6. Set up monitoring methods Management
    7. Prepare and deliver training Supervisors, trainers, or contractors
    8. Monitor “Take Action” activities and make adjustments Management
    9. Monitor use of Field Level Risk Assessment Management
    10. Communicate successes Management


    Action/objective Who How? When? Done?


    STAGEE 5: Review Program


    Review progress toward targets and objectives Management


    • Gather information from audits and monitoring activities


    Identify changes required and develop plan Management Implement plan Management




    TEMPLATES


    THE “MEMORY CARD” – A CARD FOR WORKERS


    The “Memory CARD” is a pocket-sized card to give to workers as a reminder of how to conduct Field Level Risk Assessment. Your company can customize this card. Templates are found (SIDE ONE)


    Resume Work Control Risks Look Around & Find Hazards Assess Risks & Think.


    “MEMORY CARD” SIDE TWO


    FIELD LEVEL RISK ASSESSMENT


    Questions to ask before & while doing a task:


    IDENTIFY:


    1.         Do I clearly understand my task?

    2.         Am I physically & mentally prepared to do the task?

    3.         What could go wrong?

    4.         Is there a risk to others or myself?

    5.         What can change that could create a new risk?

    6.         Could other crews, workers, or conditions pose risks to me?


    ASSESS:


    1.         How bad could this be?

    2.         How likely is it to happen?


    CONTROL:


    1.         Who should I contact for help?

    2.         Are permits, written practices, procedures, etc. required?

    3.         What can I do to control the risk?

    4.         Will the control affect another part of the task being done?

    5.         Do I need to tell anyone else?

    6.         Are emergency response plans required?


    “IF IN DOUBT SHOUT” CONTACT YOUR SUPERVISOR!



    RISK ASSESSMENT MATRIX


    LEVEL OF RISK = Consequences X Probability


    Consequences: High (H) – Serious; Medium (M) – Moderate; Low (L) – Minor

    Probability: High (H) – Often; Medium (M) – Sometimes; Low (L) – Rarely



    FIELD LEVEL RISK ASSESSMENT PROCESS FLOWCHART


    When do we initiate a Risk Assessment?


    (I.e. Change of work or workers Change to working area Start of a new job or task Tailgate/Toolbox Meetings



    Process Flow Diagram


    Process Definition: a method that an individual or crew would use to minimize or eliminate potential losses (to people, property, materials or equipment) during the course of conducting work.


    Inputs:


      1. Plan or Project Job Package
      2. Company Safety Program
      3. Job Procedures
      4. Standards and Practices
      5. Job Safety Analysis (JSA)
      6.  

    Assess/Evaluate ID

    Hazards ID Job/


    Activity

    Hazard adequately controlled to an acceptable level of Risk?


    Document for Further Reference and Analysis

    Yes

    No

    Control


    Does the Hazard need to be further controlled?

    Yes

    No


    No further Documentation Required


    Outputs:

    Monitor Risk trends (from documentation)

      • Adjustments to project design
      • Safety policy changes
      • Changes to practices or work procedures



    FIELD LEVEL RISK ASSESSMENT FORM


    DATE: _____ ______________

    LOCATION:

    PROJECT NAME:

    COMPANY:

    STEP 1 – IDENTIFY MAIN JOB TASKS STEP 2 – IDENTIFY HAZARDS STEP 3 – ASSESS RISK

    (RISK = PROBABILITY X CONSEQUENCE)

    STEP 4 – CONTROL HAZARDS

    HAZARD WHAT CONTROL BY WHOM WHO CHECKED

    FOLLOW-UP REQUIRED

    COMPLETED BY: SUP/LEADER REVIEW:



    SOME QUESTIONS FOR YOU


    1. Do you know that the construction industry has the highest rate of injury accidents of all the industries?


    2. Have you ever computed the real cost of accidents/incidents e.g. equipment /environmental damage, lost work time, WCB premiums, poor reliability resulting in bad public relations, low morale


    3. Does the cost that you experience from incidents significantly affect your profits and your rating with your customers?


    4. Do you think that these incidents could be avoided if your workers would stop and think before they did work? After using a process that included field level risk assessment, this So Many Company experienced a 300% increase in reported incidents and a 40% decrease in serious injuries.


    5. Do you wish you had a new way to work with crews in your company to improve your accident figures?